Chile merece un futuro mejor: hacia una previsión social de las y los trabajadores

por Aquiles Carrasco, delegado No + AFP Talca.

 

El descontento social contra el actual sistema de pensiones ha crecido durante las últimas semanas, alcanzando expresiones históricas. El gobierno ha respondido con el gatopardismo que los caracteriza, obteniendo en tiempo récord una propuesta de reforma que deja completamente vacías de contenido las demandas del movimiento social, pero de paso, dejando satisfechos a los empresarios y políticos que dirigen el país.

Es por ello que resulta imprescindible evidenciar en todos nuestros espacios que la lucha por NO+AFP supera lo meramente economicista, debiendo rechazarse de plano la consigna de #MejoresPensiones con la que el gobierno da la bienvenida a su propuesta.

Hay que aprender de errores pasados. Hemos sido testigos de la reducción de las demandas del movimiento estudiantil a una mera discusión por la implementación de la criticada beca gratuidad, situación que podría replicarse al sistema previsional a través de tímidos ajustes.

Desde una vereda diferente, las propuestas de reemplazo al actual sistema previsional sostenidas y apoyadas por organizaciones como la Coordinadora NO+AFP y la Fundación Sol, hablan sin medias tintas sobre la implementación de un sistema tripartito y de reparto solidario, componentes imprescindibles para un sistema más justo, y que se encuentran ausentes en la respuesta gubernamental.

Volviendo a la propuesta del gobierno, resulta necesario aclarar que incorporar progresivamente un aporte del empleador al pilar solidario no transforma al sistema actual en uno mixto, así como tampoco lo haría la creación de una AFP estatal.

Para la implementación de un modelo previsional más digno, se debe considerar de manera imprescindible el cambio a un sistema de reparto pleno, en el cual los aportes de trabajadores, empleadores y el Estado contribuyan a la creación de un único fondo de pensiones, administrado por una entidad pública sin fines de lucro que garantice el pago de las pensiones a todos los trabajadores y trabajadoras acreedores de este derecho.

Además, para el correcto funcionamiento de un futuro modelo se deben tener en consideración otros dos aspectos fundamentales: a) el dinero de este fondo de pensiones no ha de ingresar al sistema de especulación financiera internacional, y; b) el fondo de pensiones ha de estar salvaguardado frente a la destinación presupuestaria de los gobiernos de turno, evitando así que sus fondos sean utilizados para cubrir la deuda pública, rescates financieros o proyectos de otra índole.

Durante las próximas semanas se vivirán momentos decisivos en el direccionamiento de este movimiento, siendo imprescindible más que nunca blindarlo de la cooptación por los sectores políticos en el poder, quienes se han plegado casi sin excepción a la propuesta gubernamental.

Mientras tanto, se debe avanzar en la discusión política de objetivos a mediano y largo plazo que sirvan para nutrir esta demanda. En efecto, propuestas alternativas existen, pero por el momento sólo se tiene claridad en cuanto a los principios que debieran regir este sistema, muy poca en cuanto a la regulación final que esperamos instaurar, y prácticamente nada en cuanto a la forma de implementación estratégica de estas propuestas.

El tema resulta particularmente delicado, por cuanto como ya ha sido expresamente reconocido por personeros de la más rancia ultraderecha neoliberal, el cambio en nuestro sistema previsional puede traer importantes consecuencias a nivel macroeconómico -no en vano hay miles de millones de pesos secuestrados en estos fondos de pensiones-, consecuencias que el bloque en el poder buscará evitar a toda costa.

Por lo tanto, más que entregar orientaciones claras sobre el porvenir de esta demanda, la invitación en este momento es a evidenciar la necesidad de dotar de un contenido político serio estas consignas, así como a impulsar un proceso de diálogo entre todos los sectores del campo social.

Entendamos que las AFP’s no pueden caer por sí solas, en cuanto a pilar fundamental del actual modelo, razón por la que este diálogo debe estar enfocado hacia a una confluencia programática que aborde de manera multisectorial todas las demandas del pueblo.

 

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