El Aborto: un problema de Derechos Humanos

 

En Chile los Derechos humanos son un tema bastante delicado. Existen organizaciones que se preocupan por velar por ellos, sin embargo, siguen siendo vulnerados sistemáticamente por una complicidad entre el sistema neoliberal y el patriarcado, pero también por la voluntad política de quienes se encuentran en las instituciones del Estado.
La mayoría se preguntará por qué hablo de “Derechos Humanos” si en el título de esta columna aparece la palabra “aborto”, la respuesta es sencilla: los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos/No Reproductivos también forman parte de los manoseados Derechos Humanos. Chile, en la década de los noventa afirmó que se haría cargo de ellos a nivel institucional, no obstante, los temas que competen a salud sexual y planificación familiar, siguen estando pendientes.
El problema del aborto se vincula directamente con la práctica de una sexualidad plena y con la planificación familiar; la opción de postergar la maternidad/paternidad, o el simple hecho de decidir no reproducirse. En la actualidad existen distintos tipos de anticonceptivos que evitan la reproducción, la píldora y el condón son los más utilizados, pero a pesar de que se lleva más de medio siglo utilizándolos, la eficacia de estos métodos no es de un 100%, por lo que siempre existe una posibilidad de falla.
Por lo tanto, es preocupante que se critique tan fácilmente a una mujer por “no cuidarse”, y se le obligue a ser madre si queda embarazada. Más aún, cuando la falla del método anticonceptivo es el factor número uno de “embarazo no deseado”. El factor número dos, es una cuestión de índole ideológica; la precaria educación sexual en Chile. Así, el embarazo no deseado suele afectar comúnmente a personas que no cuentan con los recursos económicos básicos para poder cuidar a un recién nacido.
La pobreza y la baja escolarización también son elementos que se repiten en estos casos. Persiste un problema de clase donde el pobre continúa siendo pobre. Podríamos decir que el embarazo no deseado es un auno273341tema de clase, pues la opción de abortar en caso de no contar con los medios económicos para poder costearse un aborto seguro en una clínica, lleva a las mujeres a prácticas desesperadas en las cuales ponen en riesgo su vida.
Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) el aborto debería asegurarse para todas las mujeres que lo requieran. ¿Qué pasa en Chile entonces? Desde la Dictadura se suprimió el derecho al aborto y la única opción para realizarlo es en la ilegalidad recurriendo al uso de misoprostol, pues es la alternativa más segura para quienes no pueden viajar al extranjero o conseguir un centro médico que realice el procedimiento mediante cirugía con los requerimientos básicos de seguridad, salubridad e higiene. Muchas mujeres recurren a cirugías sin estos requerimientos básicos y mueren por lo arriesgado del procedimiento. Otras, por temor a asistir a un centro de salud para realizar un raspaje tras el uso del medicamento abortivo, mueren de septicemia por no eliminar los desechos del interior de su cuerpo.
El aborto es un problema político, económico, social, cultural, y por sobre todo, de salud y de clase. Que no solo debe reducirse a las tres causales que se están debatiendo en las esferas legislativas; riesgo de vida de la madre, inviabilidad del feto y violación. Las mujeres están siendo obligadas a ser madres pese a no querer serlo, las mujeres están siendo obligadas a abortar sin las condiciones de seguridad mínimas y también están siendo encarceladas. Mientras las pobres mueren, las privilegiadas tienen la posibilidad de viajar al extranjero a realizarse un aborto, pues cuentan con los recursos económicos para ello. Es por esto, que por cuarto año consecutivo, nos estamos organizando para salir nuevamente a las calles a marchar por el derecho al aborto. Este 25 de julio salimos a las calles para exigir el derecho a elegir ser madres.

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