Educación Pública y Privatización: nuevos actores, nueva gestión, nuevas subjetividades, nuevas formas de resistencia.

Por Renzo Gamboa

       Profesor de Historia, Integrante Colectivo Educar y Transformar-Valparaíso

 

Preámbulo

La educación pública chilena, en los últimos 30 años, ha sufrido cambios en su configuración, a raíz de la penetración de las lógicas privatizadoras neoliberales. El contexto en el que se va implementando esta lógica privatizadora es una sociedad chilena bajo la influencia de un capitalismo financiero mundial que está en constante transformación, en distintos ámbitos o planos: económico, sociopolítico y en el plano cultural-ideológico. Consideramos que este último plano es muy importante de visualizar, porque es el plano que utiliza este sistema económico-social (neoliberalismo, globalización o como se quiera llamar) para existir, para perpetuarse. Ya que es a través de los mundos o imágenes que el capitalismo crea a nivel cultural e ideológico, por donde invade nuestro sentido común, nuestra visión de mundo, nuestra subjetividad.  Profesores, apoderados, estudiantes y funcionarios, no sólo de establecimientos educacionales llamados públicos, sino también subvencionados y privados, están inmersos en esta realidad de educación invadida por lógicas neoliberales, y son influenciados por esta forma de mirar la realidad, por esta publicidad que apunta a los sujetos como consumidores de servicios. Una forma de mirar la realidad que se transforma en “mecanismo de control”, hablando en lenguaje “foucaultiano”.

Por tanto, los docentes,  como parte de este sistema, son susceptibles de ser invadidos por estas lógicas neoliberales, que van configurando un nuevo profesionalismo en un doble sentido: como sujetos que son permeados en sus representaciones, en su sentido común, en cuanto potenciales consumidores de servicios ; y como parte importante en el engranaje del proceso educativo: como receptores de las nuevas ideas y representaciones en educación y como transmisores de estas mismas ideas y representaciones.

Consideramos que esta óptica, esta forma de mirar la realidad desde el nivel cultural e ideológico, es muy útil para comprender los cambios que la educación y la labor docente han venido experimentando.

Gary Anderson y la privatización de la educación

De esta subjetividad, entendida como modo de control, forma de poder, muchas veces discursivo, es la que nos habla Gary Anderson en su ponencia “Privatizando subjetividades: resistiendo el nuevo profesionalismo” realizada en el marco del seminario Internacional “Educación pública y privatización”, realizado en la Universidad de Chile el 1 y 2 de septiembre de 2015.

Este profesor de la Universidad de Nueva York, también ex docente y ex director de escuela, expuso en base a sus observaciones y experiencias en la realidad educativa estadounidense y mexicana. Parte su presentación otorgando un marco general descriptivo del sistema económico neoliberal y su lógica privatizadora. Al respecto, grafica que existen al menos tres dimensiones donde se expresan estas lógicas privatizadoras: en la dimensión económica,  a través  de la soberanía del mercado y la transferencia de recursos del sector público al privado. En la dimensión política a través de nuevas modalidades de gobernanza y privatización del proceso político. Finalmente, el neoliberalismo tendría su expresión en el ámbito cultural/educacional, entrando muy fuerte en todo el quehacer educativo. A continuación, presentamos de forma más detallada el análisis de esta última dimensión.

Neoliberalismo y educación: nuevos actores y las lógicas privatizadoras

Anderson parte identificando nuevas redes, nuevos actores en una educación que tiende a privatizarse cada vez más: nuevos filántropos que hacen aportes (no de forma inocente); Thinks Thanks (Grupos de intelectuales creadores de discursos); empresas con fines de lucro dedicadas a la educación; Asociaciones público-privadas; Compañías de consultores (ATES); Organizaciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial. Todos estos actores estarían configurando una Nueva gestión pública, que se caracterizaría por: la introducción del mercado dentro y entre las escuelas; énfasis en estándares explícitos y medidas de performance; énfasis en los resultados educacionales; mayor uso de estandarización; medidas contra la sindicalización;  descentralización administrativa; disciplina en el uso de recursos.

Dentro de esta dimensión cultural/educacional, la lógica privatizadora operaría de la siguiente forma: a través de la privatización de las subjetividades (rediseño de las identidades individuales y profesionales); a través del Individualismo institucionalizado (fragmentación de de los grupos de profesores, antisolidaridad entre los profesores); privatización del espacio y tiempo; privatización de los medios de comunicación. Para Anderson, esta nueva subjetividad estaría siendo configurada por nuevos mecanismos de control, tales como el control discursivo  y el control a través de la medición de la performance de los docentes en su quehacer    (resultados en evaluaciones docentes, resultados de sus estudiantes en pruebas estandarizadas).

Formas de resistencia en la escuela al modelo privatizador en educación.

Afortunadamente, para Anderson habría también nuevas formas de resistencia individual y colectiva, donde los profesores tendrían un rol central. Por ejemplo, los docentes podrían echar mano de lo que Stephen Ball llama vigilancia crítica, una forma de auto-vigilancia, de forma individual. Pero para Anderson, la mejor forma de resistencia es la resistencia colectiva. Este tipo de resistencia se manifestaría en grupos de profesores y profesoras que forman espacios discursivos paralelos o “contra-públicos”, en otras palabras, espacios críticos de resistencia a las reformas neoliberales.  Estos espacios se traducen en talleres de educadores o talleres de narrativas docentes, donde los profesores  formulan  sus propias interpretaciones de las identidades, necesidades e intereses docentes (Nancy Fraser). Otra forma de resistencia sería el impulsar necesarios cambios en las organizaciones sindicales y gremiales de los docentes, sobretodo en la vía de recuperar su rol activo como movimientos sociales y recuperar su vínculo con la comunidad.   Al respecto, Anderson cita la experiencia del Sindicato de profesores de Chicago, donde los profesores hicieron vínculos con las comunidades donde vivían sus estudiantes y cuando vino la coyuntura de la huelga del 2013, las propias comunidades apoyaron a los profesores, porque existía ese vínculo entre la comunidad y los docentes.

Reflexiones finales

Sin duda, en la capacidad de re-invertarnos que tengamos los educadores, y de aprender de otras experiencias de resistencia, está una de las claves para hacerle frente a las nuevas caras del sistema neoliberal en educación. Pero  también debemos desarrollar la capacidad de conocer e interpretar las formas que utiliza el sistema educacional para utilizarnos como reproductores de sus propias dinámicas. Debemos permanecer vigilantes y atentos. Leer, estudiar, discutir y reflexionar. Llevar la reflexión a nuestros apoderados y la comunidad. Ir a la comunidad y conocer sus problemas. Reconocer que estos problemas son muy parecidos a los nuestros. Que estos problemas también “son” nuestros. Prepararnos para lo que viene, pero con otros, nunca más solos.

 

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