La Bahía de Concepción bajo amenaza transnacional

Por Solidaridad – Federación Comunista Libertaria, Territorial, Bío-Bío.

El proyecto de terminal marítimo-portuario BiobioGenera-GNL (ex Octopus-GNL) pretende llevarse a cabo en la costa de Penco y Lirquén. Pese a la enorme oposición de las organizaciones sociales por la amenaza medioambiental, implicará la construcción y operación del mayor complejo termoeléctrico de Chile.

El terminal que pretende construirse estará habilitado para la recepción, almacenamiento y regasificación de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), para posteriormente ser transportado a tierra mediante un ducto submarino, que enlazará con un gaseoducto terrestre; y así abastecer a la termoeléctrica El Campesino, como también otras ya proyectadas en la región.

La Inversión del terminal de GNL supera los 165 millones de dólares, y la central El Campesino, los 804 millones de dólares, proyectos que contemplan su puesta en funcionamiento para el año 2018. Uno de sus asociados es precisamente Cheniere Energy, dedicada a la extracción de gas natural mediante fraking (fracturación hidráulica), el cual ya está prohibido en varios lugares debido a sus desastrosas consecuencias medioambientales y en la salud de las personas, principalmente por la contaminación de napas subterráneas.

La tramitación del proyecto no ha estado exenta de conflictos, puesto que las comunidades directamente afectadas se han organizado en su contra para manifestar desde el comienzo los serios efectos socio-ambientales que puede traer. Expresados en la alteración directa e indiscriminada del ecosistema marino, el borde costero y el marisma Rocuant-Andalién. Implicando alteraciones drásticas en la flora y fauna marina, la disponibilidad de agua para suelos de uso agrícola, la destrucción de las actividades productivas tradicionales como la pesca artesanal, el buceo y la recolección de mariscos, sumado al potente desarrollo turístico de la Bahía en las comunas directamente afectadas.

En oposición al proyecto y a sus destructivos efectos, se agrupan la Coordinadora Penco- Lirquén, Coordinadora Chorera, Coordinadora Tomecina y el Comité Bulnes sin Termoeléctricas, en la Coordinadora Intercomunal contra Octopus/BiobioGenera-GNL.

¿Qué relevancia tiene este tipo de proyectos energéticos en relación a los acuerdos económicos entre Chile y Estados Unidos – Canadá, en el contexto geopolítico global?

Es de conocimiento público que Michelle Bachelet viajó a Estados Unidos y ratificó un acuerdo para importar GNL hasta el año 2050 y con esto concretar la dependencia en la importación de Gas con los EE.UU. Esto es un objetivo estratégico porque se sabe que Chile pretende exportar hacia otros países como Argentina y Brasil. Esto ya está zanjado, de hecho, el ministro Máximo Pacheco ya firmó el acuerdo.

11 Octopus

Concentración contra la aprobación del proyecto en Concepción, 18 de junio.

Entonces, ¿se proyecta a Latinoamérica como una zona estratégica de extracción de recursos y producción energética?

El proyecto va en beneficio principalmente de Estados Unidos, que con el negocio del gas inicia una avanzada para superar la guerra económica que sostiene con países que poseen petróleo, como Venezuela, Rusia y otros países árabes. Esto les permite plantearse a propósito de otro recursos energéticos, comercializarlo directamente y con esto reemplazar la exportación de petróleo que no pueden realizar.

¿Qué importancia tiene para el Estado chileno este proyecto, en el marco del plan estratégico energético 2020-2050?

La idea es que la región del Bío Bío se convierta en una zona de capital energético, puesto que el gas permitirá seguir construyendo termoeléctricas y con ello generar electricidad para enviarla al norte, principalmente a las mineras y para exportarla a otras empresas Latinoamericanas. Hoy en día As Gener tiene un contrato con Argentina y Brasil para exportar energía eléctrica. Entonces en el marco de convertirnos en la capital energética de todo el país, el gas cumple un rol estratégico.

¿Qué riesgos sociales y medioambientales significa la utilización masiva del GNL, en la región?

Tener gas, que es un combustible fósil y no energía limpia, como intentan hacerlo creer, va a permitir desalentar la utilización de energías renovables, limpias y sustentables, por lo tanto el gas no contribuye a la descontaminación de la región, al contrario, genera nuevas industrias y termoeléctricas en el territorio del Bío Bío, de hecho hay estudios que han demostrado que en E.E.U.U con la utilización del gas natural licuado, la contaminación no ha disminuido, sino que ha aumentado, para alimentar una gran cantidad de industrias. En términos sociales la incorporación de está industria energética en base a GNL, no es compatible con las actividades asociadas a la pesca artesanal, la recolección de mariscos, el comercio local, el potencial turístico dado el valor paisajístico de la bahía, destrucción de la identidad y arraigo al borde costero, el patrimonio, entre otros.

¿Cuáles son los riesgos a los que quedará expuesta la población ante un proyecto de estas características?

El proceso de regasificación trae contaminación atmosférica por la gran cantidad de emisiones de MP 10 y 2,5, más la liberación de residuos tóxicos para la calidad del aire que tienen impacto directo en la salud de las personas, y de manera global contribuyendo también al cambio climático y el efecto invernadero.

Respecto a los desafíos que se abren, ¿cómo se puede homologar el desarrollo dispar de movilización en los territorios directamente afectados como Penco-Lirquén, Tomé, Talcahuano y Bulnes?

Es complicado homologar procesos de movilización en las diversas comunas que se ven directamente afectadas por el proyecto. Son comunas que durante años no se han movilizado por razones comunes, de cierta forma, lo niveles de organización y movilización son bajos, en ese sentido la tarea que se ha desarrollado consiste en recomponer el tejido social teniendo una lucha común contra la instalación del terminal GNL Penco Lirquén. Para aunar la fuerza lo que se hace es crear una coordinadora intercomunal contra el proyecto Octopus entre Penco, Lirquén, Tomé, Talcahuano y Bulnes para sacar acciones en común, que se van concretando en Concepción por ser la capital regional y se van acoplando no sólo manifestantes de las comunas directamente afectadas sino de las que prontamente y de manera posterior, se verán afectadas por la instalación de termoeléctricas. Se apuesta por la realización de asambleas comunales territoriales y movilizaciones comunes entre las coordinadoras.

¿Cómo extrapolar la movilización desde las comunas que se ven directamente afectadas hacia aquellas que indirectamente sufrirán las consecuencias con el ingreso masivo del GNL a la región?

Una estrategia fundamental es promover la propaganda y generar información para concientizar especialmente en el plano estudiantil, como dinamizadores de los movimientos sociales, entendiendo que además son habitantes de los territorios afectados por el proyecto. Es fundamental llevar la discusión del modelo neoliberal y del extractivismo y sus efectos en el territorio en particular y en el escenario nacional en general con proyectos como la Minera Pelambres, Alto Maipo en Santiago, con las salmoneras en el sur, etc.

Finalmente se apuesta por la multisectorialidad, puesto que en los territorios hay trabajadores, estudiantes, pobladores, y esta lucha afecta y debe ser enfrentada por todos y todas.

 

[Publicado en la Edición N° 34 de Solidaridad]

 

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