El Brexit, parte del momento destituyente de la Unión Europea

por Etienne Balibar

Traducción de Cristóbal Ramos

Lejos de la idea de minimizar el carácter dramático de las consecuencias que va a llevar el voto del Reino Unido a los británicos y a Europa, me llama la atención la manera a través de la cual los titulares de la prensa francesa y extranjera nos presentan las cosas: “Después del Brexit…”. Con raras excepciones, todos parecen asumir que el divorcio ya fue, cuando en realidad estamos entrando en una fase de turbulencias, en la cual no hay ninguna claridad. Es esta la incertidumbre que quiero comentar e interpretar.

Como se sabe bien, una comparación no es un argumento. Sin embargo, ¿cómo no recordar en este momento que, en la historia reciente de la política europea, los referéndums nacionales y transnacionales nunca han sido aplicados? Este fue el caso el 2005 y 2008 a propósito de la “Constitución Europea” y del tratado de Lisboa, más evidentemente todavía el 2015 a propósito del memorándum impuesto a Grecia. Será probablemente lo mismo esta vez. La clase dirigente británica, más allá de los conflictos personales que la han dividido tácticamente, está maniobrando para retardar el fracaso y negociar los mejores términos de la “salida”. Algunos gobiernos de la UE (el francés a la cabeza), así como los portavoces de las Comisión, multiplican sus desvaríos («salir es salir», «leave means leave»). Sin embargo, Alemania no lo entiende de esa manera y no habrá ninguna unanimidad, salvo de fachada.

Lo más verosímil, al final de un periodo de tensiones, donde el resultado será determinado más por las fluctuaciones de los mercados financieros que por las opiniones públicas, es que se presente la fabricación de una nueva geometría del “sistema” de Estados europeos, dentro del cual la pertenencia formal en la Unión Europea será siempre compensada por otras estructuras: la Eurozona, pero también la OTAN, el sistema de seguridad en las fronteras que sucederá a Schengen, y una “zona de libre intercambio” a definir en función de las relaciones de fuerza económicas. Desde este punto de vista, la comparación entre el Brexit y el Grexit puede ser instructiva: la debilidad de Grecia, abandonada por todos aquellos que, lógicamente, tuvieron que haber apoyado sus revindicaciones, la llevaron a un régimen de exclusión interior; la fuerza relativa del Reino Unido (que puede contar con el apoyo sólido dentro de la UE) conducirá sin duda a una forma acentuada de inclusión exterior.

¿Quiere decir esto que no hay aquí un ningún punto de inflexión? Obviamente no. Examinemos brevemente el “lado inglés” y el “lado europeo”, antes de decir porque no son separables, sino que representan los dos lados de una misma moneda.

Es evidente que la historia particular de Gran Bretaña, su pasado imperial, su historia social hecha de vuelcos brutales, su “relación privilegiada” con los Estados Unidos, deben ser tomados en cuenta para explicar la emergencia de un sentimiento “antieuropeo” hegemónico. Los análisis que nos han propuesto muestran que aquél posee una extraordinaria diversidad de móviles, repartidos según los factores de clase, de generación, de nacionalidad y de etnicidad. Potencialmente, son contradictorios entre sí, y es esta contradicción la recuperada por el discurso “soberanista” que ha sido manipulado por los partidarios del Brexit. Se debe por lo tanto hacer la pregunta acerca de cuánto tiempo pueden enmascarar el hecho de que, en particular, los estragos económicos y sociales de los que son hoy víctimas una proporción creciente de “nuevos pobres” del reino, son consecuencia de los efectos acumulados de las políticas neoliberales que la UE no ha impuesto solamente a Gran Bretaña, sino que vienen desde la época de Thatcher y del Nuevo Laborismo, uno de los más activos promotores de una Europa conjunta. Por lo mismo, el Brexit –cualquiera sea su modalidad– no aportará corrección alguna a esta situación. Salvo si, evidentemente, una política alternativa se vuelve mayoritaria. Pero falta para esto, lo que no es la menor paradoja de la situación, que ella tenga su contraparte en el continente, ya que la ley de la competencia entre los territorios se va a imponer más que nunca.

Lo que nos lleva a la parte “europea”. De todas las especificidades tomadas debidamente en cuenta, ninguno de los problemas que golpean al Reino Unido está ausente en las naciones europeas. Lo cual muestra qué hay de verdadero en la propaganda populista (“ni derecha ni izquierda”) que se desata en toda la UE, reclamando referéndums siguiendo el modelo inglés. Ya en 2005, Helmut Schmidt había observado que, salvo alguna excepción, las consultas sobre el modelo francés y holandés habrían dado resultados negativos en todas partes. La crisis de legitimidad, el retorno del nacionalismo, la tendencia a proyectar el malestar social y cultural sobre un “enemigo interno” objetivo de los partidos xenófobos e islamófobos, se han desarrollado por todos lados. La crisis griega ha sido utilizada por los gobiernos adoptando la austeridad social para hacer de la deuda pública el fantasma de los contribuyentes. La crisis de los refugiados ha sido mezclada con las cuestiones de seguridad. Claramente, lo que se manifiesta en Gran Bretaña como “separatismo” se traduce por toda Europa como una tendencia al quiebre de las sociedades, como una agravación de sus fracturas internas y externas.

Dicho mejor: hemos cruzado un umbral en el proceso de desagregación de la construcción europea, no a causa del voto británico, sino en razón de lo que ello revela de las tendencias a la polarización de la Europa unida y de su crisis política, que es también moral. No solamente estamos, como lo he escrito, en un “interregno“, sino que asistimos a un proceso destituyente que, por un instante no tiene una parte constituyente.

¿Estamos impotentes? Esa es la pregunta. A corto plazo soy muy pesimista, porque los discursos de “refundación” de Europa están en las manos de una clase política y tecnocrática que no contempla ninguna transformación de las orientaciones que le aseguran un buen pasar al poder oculto (el de los mercados financieros), y no quiere reformar en profundidad el sistema de poder del cual deriva su monopolio de la representación. Y la posición para responder a esto, por consiguiente, está ocupada por los partidos y los ideólogos que tienden a destruir los vínculos entre los pueblos (o más generalmente entre los residentes) europeos. Falta una larga marcha para que se conjuguen y se precisen a los ojos de una mayoría de los ciudadanos a través de las fronteras, la estrecha interdependencia entre la soberanía compartida, democracia transnacional, alter-globalización, co-desarrollo de las regiones y las naciones, traducción entre las culturas. No hemos llegado allí, y el tiempo es corto… Razones de más –si creemos en Europa– para seguir buscando sin descanso una explicación.

26 de junio de 2016

Publicación original: http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2016/06/27/le-brexit-cet-anti-grexit_1462429

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    Creo que la votación por el Brexit es un rechazo de 30 años de austeridad en las regiones del centro/norte/oeste/este de Inglaterra que fueron casi destruidas por la campaña de Thatcher de “modernizar” el capitalismo. Sufrieron el choque en los años ’80 y nunca han recuperado. Los millones de votantes (incluso en los centros donde siempre la gran mayoría vota por los laboristas) estan muy canzados y se aprovecharon el referendo para decir que NO. ¿Qué va a pasa ahora? El día 5 julio comienza una huelga nacional de los profes en contra de la privatización de los colegios. Y sigue en pie la huelga de los medicos en los hospitales. Si nace en estos dos conflictos niveles mayores de apoyo, vamos a ver si el rechazo del Brexit se esta convirtiendo en una lucha más generalizada contra la austeridad. Saludos

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