Trabajadoras y trabajadores agrícolas, reforma laboral y “Estatuto del Temporero”

 

por  Francisco Maturana

 

La tan bullada y recién aprobada reforma laboral del gobierno ha dejado sus coletazos en otros proyectos de ley de la agenda laboral comprometida en el programa de Bachelet. A pesar del carácter de urgencia que le dio el Ejecutivo a la tramitación en el Congreso, las diferencias al interior del conglomerado entorpecieron la pronta toma de acuerdos, retrasando y desplazando a futuro la discusión en torno al “Estatuto del temporero” del sector agrícola/agroindustrial.

Dicho estatuto -enviado por la administración de Piñera el 2011- busca modificar un capítulo del Código del Trabajo. Éste es el resultado de la “mesa laboral agrícola” que funciona desde el 2008 y en la cual convergen representantes de las y los trabajadores, el empresariado y el gobierno. Sin embargo, hasta las “organizaciones grandes” (pero con poca representatividad), como ANAMURI, Ranquil, CONAGRO y UOC, se bajaron de la mesa por disconformidad con sus resultados, indicando que el Estatuto “establece en lo sustantivo una flexibilidad laboral inhumana”, donde priman el contrato por faena y el pago a trato con piso menor al salario mínimo. En consecuencia, tenemos una reforma laboral que no toca la problemática de precarización en la que se encuentra esta rama laboral (con una fuerza de trabajo con fuerte presencia de mujeres y jóvenes), postergando aún más la situación de las y los temporeros. Presiones y lloriqueos de la patronal expresadas por directivos de SNA, ASOEX y FEDEFRUTA en declaraciones a la opinión pública contribuyeron a que este sector de la clase trabajadora se quedara fuera de la reforma laboral.

Las reivindicaciones históricas de estas trabajadoras y trabajadores organizados apuntan a establecer una mayor estabilidad laboral, contratos indefinidos, aumento de salarios, mejora de condiciones laborales -seguridad, higiene y salud-, erradicación de la informalidad laboral (trabajar sin contrato), así como establecer contratos directos con el fundo (empresa) para eliminar el mecanismo de triangulación laboral: la figura del contratista. Avanzando así en la eliminación de la subcontratación en la agricultura y la agroindustria de exportación.

Bajo el actual panorama, si se aprueba el “Estatuto del temporero” con la discusión dada hasta ahora -sin la participación y voz de las y los trabajadores organizados-, se ratificaría legalmente una práctica y realidad social que ya se da y que favorece solo al gran empresariado exportador. Suma al contexto desfavorable la escasa representación sindical, episodios de movilización y lucha del rubro. Al año 2013 de un universo de 530.000 trabajadoras y trabajadores silvoagropecuarios, solamente 29.593 se encontraban sindicalizados, un escaso 5,5%, y además, se registraron apenas dos huelgas legales aquel mismo año.

En conclusión, se hace imperioso que este sector se empiece a organizar, luchar, informarse y formarse respecto a las implicancias de este estatuto que nuevamente viene a inclinar la balanza en favor del capital y en contra del trabajo. Para esto, las y los trabajadores con mayor capacidad y experiencia organizativa, así como la apoyatura técnica ligada al mundo laboral/sindical deben contribuir decididamente.

[publicado en la edición N°33 de Solidaridad]

38 Comments

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    16.04.2017 at 12:02 Responder

    Cuando un trabajador temporero agrícola manifiesta su inquietud y descontento del salario de las condiciones laborales esclavistas que se viven a diario en los fundos y de alguna manera se intenta negociar. su voz es acallada y entre los fundos se pasan la voz impidiendo que este trabajador pueda ejercer el derecho de poder sustentar a su familia y es así como una y otra vez disuelven las practicas sindicalistas impiden la organización del trabajador temporero .

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