Antecedentes del desastre socioambiental de Chiloé

Por Salvador Oskita

Mucho se ha comentado respecto del daño ambiental generado en la décima región, y particularmente en el archipiélago de Chiloé. Al revisar los documentos técnicos emanados desde SERNAPESCA quedan muchas dudas al respecto. Sin embargo, desde otras instituciones han sido redactados informes rebatiendo técnicamente las conclusiones expuestas en el informe de la institución gubernamental. A continuación, señalaremos los antecedentes más importantes de los informes del “Vertimiento de salmones 10-05-2016” y del informe de la Fundación Crea sobre “Antecedentes ambientales de la crisis de Chiloé”

Lo que dice SERNAPESCA

En enero de 2016 comienzan a cambiar las condiciones de los océanos en la décima región, lo que se traduce en el aumento de la temperatura de las aguas del mar. Este aumento significó la floración de algas nocivas (FAN) generando una masiva mortandad de salmones por asfixia.

Producto de lo anterior, SERNAPESCA activó los protocolos para la eliminación de los grandes desechos provocados por la masiva muerte peces, lo que incluyó destinar parte de los desechos para la elaboración de harina de pescado.

El organismo encargado de autorizar el vertimiento de los desechos al mar fue la Autoridad Marítima y dentro de las razones que se esgrimieron para justificar esta acción, fue que las toneladas de pescado muerto significaban un riesgo para la población. Así, el día 10 de marzo se comienza a realizar el primero, de un total de 11 viajes, hacia la zona de descarga; “el punto determinado correspondió a una superficie de 5 millas náuticas de radio, ubicadas a 75 millas náuticas al oeste de Punta Corona, Región de Los Lagos, área definida (…)”.

Los “criterios” para elegir este lugar fueron las siguientes:

-Verificar una zona en donde no haya actividad pesquera en base a los datos históricos del Sistema de Posicionamiento Satelital de naves pesqueras (POSAT) y la información de la subsecretaría de pesca y acuicultura.

-Que la descarga se haga sobre una fosa marina de 3600  metros de profundidad, para evitar que la corriente arrastre los desechos a la costa.

-Que no corresponda a una zona protegida.

Los viajes finalizaron el día 26 de marzo. Originalmente Salmón Chile A.G. presentó la solicitud de botar al mar 11.600 toneladas de pescado en descomposición y según se asegura en las conclusiones del informe de SERNAPESCA, se vaciaron al mar finalmente 4.655,03 toneladas.

El informe de la Fundación Crea

Por otro lado, se ha emanado un segundo informe correspondiente a lo realizado por la Fundación Crea en donde se exponen las prácticas comunes de la industria del salmón en Chile. Este compendio parte relatando el episodio del virus ISA producido en el año 2007.

Aquel virus también causó la muerte de muchos salmones y provocó repercusiones a nivel social y laboral. A pesar de la situación anterior, la industria logró superar este problema, pero mantuvo sus prácticas de producción generando nuevos brotes del virus.

Posteriormente, se hace un resumen del informe de SERNAPESCA sobre el vertimiento de los salmones, pero se presentan dudas respecto de cuánto fue lo que efectivamente se arrojó al mar.

Además, del problema generado por el vertimiento de estos desechos al mar, se expone otro problema; el cual corresponde al varamiento de diferentes organismos marinos al oeste de Chiloé lo que tiene en alerta a la comunidad científica y a la ciudadanía.

La explicación presentada por la institucionalidad es que estas masivas muertes corresponden a los efectos de la marea roja que han asolado las costas de Chiloé, pero se debe decir que no hay registros de masivas muertes de especies marinas producto de los efectos de las toxinas Alexandrium y Dinophysis que son las presentes en las costas de nuestro país.

Según el informe, las razones del fenómeno corresponden al aumento del nivel de temperatura, radiación y nutrientes. Este proceso ocurre naturalmente con el “Fenómeno del Niño”, y se ha presentado desde el año 2015. También se expone que, las nuevas condiciones ambientales son parte de la acción humana moderna que se superponen desde hace pocos decenios a los ciclos climáticos globales naturales, lo que puede estar causando un aumento significativo en la frecuencia, intensidad y extensión geográfica de los florecimientos algales”.

La acumulación de carbono y fósforo en las piscinas de los salmones y la suspensión del nitrógeno en el ambiente marino producto de la misma actividad, generan procesos de eutrofización o disminución del oxígeno el mar, con el consiguiente aumento de temperatura de las aguas.

Sumando lo anterior al “Fenómeno del Niño”, generan el ambiente propicio para el crecimiento de algas, causando que la sobrepoblación de estas especies, generen una taza insostenible de toxinas, incapaz de ser absorbida por los ecosistemas marinos.

Finalmente, se hace un llamado a no solo fijarse en el vertimiento de pescado en descomposición, sino, a cuestionar el modo en el cual se genera el cultivo de salmones, ya que su proceso productivo sería el causante de la eutrofización de las aguas de la zona, arista que no se ha tomado en cuenta al momento de hacer las investigaciones y encontrar las causas del desastre socioambiental que afecta hoy profundamente a las y los habitantes de Chiloé.

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