La “democracia en la medida de lo posible”: las y los ejecutados políticos en el gobierno de Patricio Aylwin

Por Su Celis

El 26 de junio de 1990 un joven obrero metalúrgico de 23 años, militante de las Juventudes Comunistas, recibe un disparo en el cráneo de un carabinero de civil,  mientras pintaba un mural por el natalicio de Salvador Allende en la comuna de Lo Espejo.

Osman Yeomans Osorio murió el 27 de junio en el hospital Barros Luco, convirtiéndose en el primer asesinado en democracia, solo tres meses después, de que Patricio Aylwin asumiera la presidencia de Chile.

Al igual que Osman, 96 personas fueron asesinadas en procedimientos policiales (1), 33 de ellos con militancia reconocida en grupos de izquierda, entre el 11 de marzo de 1990 y el 11 de marzo de 1994.

¿Violencia innecesaria? ¿Violación a los Derechos Humanos en democracia? ¿Excesos? ¿Política represiva? ¿Pacificación y aniquilamiento subversivo (2)?

1arielantonioletti
Marco Ariel Antonioletti (21 años), militante del Movimiento Juvenil Lautaro (MJL), murió ejecutado el 15 de noviembre de 1990 por un disparo en la frente durante el asalto a la casa donde se refugiaba en la Villa Japón y que pertenecía a Juan Carvajal, quien fue asesor de Michelle Bachelet en su primer gobierno.

Lo cierto es que el primer gobierno post dictadura es sin dudas un período complejo que estuvo marcado por la desarticulación de los grupos políticos de izquierda que no apoyaban los pactos que se realizaron para retornar a la democracia.

El Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez, el Movimiento Juvenil Lautaro, y algunas estructuras derivadas del MIR sufrieron la represión en democracia, luego de definir la continuidad de su lucha de forma violenta, fuera de los grupos gobernantes y la institucionalidad pactada.

La constitución de 1980, la impunidad de la que gozaban los violadores de Derechos Humanos, los enclaves autoritarios y la instalación y consolidación del modelo económico, eran algunas de las razones por las que estos grupos no estaban dispuestos a dejar su lucha.

La respuesta del gobierno de la Concertación, liderado por Patricio Aylwin no se dejó esperar. Las acciones que los grupos rebeldes ejecutaron aceleraron la represión y la institucionalidad que se creó para ello. Los rebeldes fueron perseguidos, encarcelados, torturados y en algunos casos asesinados.

La política emanada del gobierno se basó en detectarlos, infiltrarlos y desarticularlos por la vía del encarcelamiento y en otros casos, directamente del aniquilamiento, poniendo al servicio de esta tarea todos los recursos necesarios: policiales, económicos, políticos y mediáticos.

Oficialmente, los asesinados en democracia son solo excesos policiales, ya que el Estado deja de reprimir y perseguir a las personas por razones políticas desde el 11 de marzo de 1990. Sin embargo, el otrora líder de la inteligencia durante los primeros años de democracia, en el consejo de seguridad pública, señala que cuando se fijan las directrices del accionar del consejo, se planean como un problema político el accionar y existir de los grupos rebeldes.

“Uno no podía derrotar a los grupos que tenían una cierta idea política o un cierto idealismo político. Si no se les derrotaba política y socialmente, procurando su aislamiento. Fue una tarea política, donde los componentes eran la parte policial, bueno ellos saben hacer la tarea, son los expertos en seguir.  Descubrir cosas, evidencias, tratándose de una lucha política uno tenía que ganar la simpatía de la población.”(3)

Internamente entonces, si eran un problema político pero formal, legal y discursivamente, se hablaba de excesos policiales cometidos contra delincuentes que ponían en peligro la naciente democracia. De esta forma no se podía hablar de violación a los derechos humanos, sino que de excesos policiales o violencia innecesaria.

Durante los 4 años del gobierno de Aylwin se genera una institucionalidad que entrega el marco para reprimir y desarticular a los grupos rebeldes. Esto se logra principalmente por 4 áreas: la legislación construida a la medida (leyes Cumplido, extrañamiento, delación compensada, etc.); la creación del Consejo de Seguridad Pública (La oficina) a través de la cual se infiltró a los grupos rebeldes; la impunidad de la que gozaban los antiguos y los nuevos violadores a los Derechos Humanos; y la re significación de los sujetos rebeldes, cambiando el discurso oficial y mediático tradicional contra los luchadores.

Hasta hoy, se mantienen elementos de ese marco represivo. La re significación de los sujetos rebeldes y su trasformación en delincuentes comunes y violentistas, podemos verlo hasta hoy, cuando las organizaciones sociales salen a la calle a exigir sus derechos. O cuando las fuerzas represivas actúan en completa impunidad al agredir a un estudiante, pescador o poblador.

El gobierno de Aylwin sin dudas comenzó la una transición a la democracia, una transición que reprimió y sentó las bases de una democracia protegida, una democracia que permitió el asesinato en la más absoluta impunidad. Una democracia que se disfraza para conseguir su objetivo, mantener el sistema económico. Una transición que parece no acabar, hasta que las clases populares digan otra cosa.

Notas:

(1) Cifra manejada por el CODEPU

(2) Concepto utilizado por el historiador Pedro Rosas Aravena, tomado de políticas utilizadas en países como Alemania e Italia y expuesto en su libro Rebeldía, Subversión y Prisión Política.

(3) Marcelo Schilling, entrevista agosto 2010

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