El feminismo como apuesta de liberación

Por La Alzada – Acción feminista libertaria

El feminismo busca transformar y liberar nuestra vida en la medida en que tiene como punto de partida el reconocimiento y el respeto de las diferencias de manera horizontal. Es una propuesta teórico-práctica que interviene y afecta la vida de todos y todas, afecta a quienes sin declararse abiertamente feministas luchan contra la opresión patriarcal, afecta a quienes son discriminades, explotades y violentades día a día, y sobre todo afecta a quienes adoptamos un punto de vista particular, que nos desafía a actuar siempre desde una perspectiva emancipatoria.

Este reconocimiento es por naturaleza conflictivo, pues implica cuestionar el lugar de poder que ocupamos como feministas militantes, muchas de nosotras con formación universitaria, pero que se convierte en acción revolucionaria una vez que se plantea como una apuesta conjunta con los saberes de distintas mujeres, con diversos orígenes, experiencias, etc. Asimismo, el feminismo será liberador en tanto que es capaz de construirse desde la autocrítica, de problematizar el lugar de privilegios que pueden reproducir relaciones de dominación.

Es por esta razón que nuestra apuesta no es reducible a un simple “tallerismo”, sino un llamado a crear nuevos y propios saberes entre todas y todos. Es a través del diálogo feminista y horizontal que se construye y subvierte el sentido de los conocimientos establecidos; es en este diálogo donde se produce el reconocimiento de las relaciones de poder que son propias de estos saberes, y es allí que éstas son dimensionadas y problematizadas, como camino para tejer su transformación en el plano de las experiencias.

Nuestra apuesta feminista es una apuesta por el conocimiento situado, conocimiento que se relaciona directamente con nuestra historia y nuestras experiencias, que busca rebelarse contra las relaciones de poder y dominación históricamente configuradas y transversales a nuestra constitución como sujetos configurados desde la raza, el género y la clase. El principal llamado de atención será asumir la necesidad de desarrollar posturas más complejas en torno a la matriz de dominación, desde donde sea posible cuestionar los supuestos en torno al género, la raza, la clase social y otras manifestaciones de la opresión.

Es así que nuestro trabajo de inserción ya sea territorial, sindical, estudiantil, etc., tiene como punto de partida estas consideraciones. No obstante, en nuestra práctica concreta nos hemos dado cuenta que el feminismo sigue siendo un saber reducido, estereotipado, ridiculizado o apropiado por otros sectores de forma oportunista. De esta manera, creemos fundamental seguir autoformándonos en los distintos referentes feministas, para luego socializar estos saberes entre quienes quieran luchar contra la opresión patriarcal. Pero para que este objetivo se logre, para nosotras es fundamental que este proceso de socialización sea realizado desde metodologías participativas y emancipatorias como la pedagogía feminista.

Según Kathleen Weiler, la pedagogía feminista reflexiona sobre las nociones de autoridad, experiencia y diferencia como ejes centrales para repensar nuestra relación con el saber y el poder. De esta manera, debemos considerar las particularidades sexo/genéricas en las dinámicas de opresión que atraviesan la práctica pedagógica, (como las distintas expectativas que tiene el profesorado entre estudiantes varones y mujeres, la anulación del aporte de las mujeres en la historia, el uso de uniforme diferenciado por género, etc.) como el hecho de que éstas no necesariamente se relacionan entre sí, ni que se superponen unas a otras para explotar las jerarquías epistémicas, especialmente las concepciones androcéntricas del conocimiento. Ahora bien, la crítica feminista también ha planteado la contracara de estos cuestionamientos sobre la figura de autoridad que encarna quien enseña. Al respecto ha señalado que ésta puede ser subvertida, particularmente a partir de la construcción de sentidos alternativos de la misma, desde los que se conteste a las relaciones de dominación androcéntrica de las que ésta es objeto.

La crítica feminista decolonial rescata el poder que tiene la autoridad construida en los intersticios de los marcos institucionales, desde los que es posible “arrimarse” al poder como dominación, para escabullirse o legitimarse cotidianamente frente a él de otros modos.

Otro aspecto central a la reflexión feminista está relacionado con el cuestionamiento a la oposición entre razón/objetividad y experiencia/subjetividad. Particularmente en la manera en como las prácticas de poder han legitimado el predominio epistemológico de lo racional, negando el papel de otras fuentes de construcción de conocimiento que se configuran en el dominio de la experiencia ya sea biográfica y colectiva, y de lo emocional.

[Publicado en la edición N°32 de Solidaridad]

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