Legislación del aborto: 30 años de violencia y vulnerabilidad hacia las mujeres chilenas

Por Pilar Caballero

“Yo tendré un niño, si tal es mi deseo y no sufro ninguna presión moral. Ninguna institución, o imperativo de orden económico, debería obligarme a hacerlo. Esta prerrogativa constituye mi poder político. Al igual que otros agentes productores, yo puedo, si la situación lo exige, presionar a la sociedad con mi producción”
(Manifiesto de 343 mujeres en abril de 1971, en Francia)

 

SOLIN32_imprimirChile es el único país de América del Sur en el cual la interrupción del embarazo es penalizada sin excepción, luego de que la Dictadura Militar derogara el artículo 119 del Código Sanitario, que autorizó el aborto terapéutico entre 1931 y 1989.

Desde 1991 se han presentado una serie de proyectos, ya sea con el fin de liberalizar o penalizar más duramente el aborto. Estas iniciativas legislativas han sido discutidas en el Congreso chileno, sin embargo, aún no se ven traducidas en una ley de aborto. Año a año se esfuman los derechos de la mujer en la defensa trascendentalista de la vida del cigoto, nudo de proyecciones biológico-religiosas, que no son nunca asumidas como tales.

El 31 de enero de 2015 el Ejecutivo presentó un proyecto que pretende despenalizar el aborto sólo en tres situaciones: si el embrión o feto padeciese alteraciones congénitas o genéticas incompatibles con la vida extrauterina, en caso de violación o de riesgo para la vida de la mujer. A pesar de que el anuncio lo realizó la propia presidenta Michelle Bachelet ya ha transcurrido más de un año y la discusión en la comisión de Constitución sigue a la espera.

Ha pasado más de un año del último proyecto de ley, sin embargo son casi tres décadas, que el Estado de Chile, ha prohibido a las mujeres interrumpir sus embarazos, desconociendo sus capacidades de tomar decisiones libres y autónomas respecto de sus propias vidas.

La demanda por una nueva normativa crecerá hasta terminar con la ilegalidad del aborto, para poner fin a la exposición a situaciones de vulnerabilidad y sufrimiento evitables. Una legislación que termine con esta prohibición que violenta gravemente los derechos humanos, es un paso más en el camino por conquistar los derechos hacia la igualdad y dignidad de las mujeres.

[Publicado en la edición N°32 de Solidaridad]

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