Columna de Acción Libertaria frente a la “Gratuidad Actual”

Por Acción Libertaria

El 21 de mayo de 2015, en la cuenta pública realizada anualmente por la presidenta de Michelle Bachelet, se anunció que para el año 2016 la gratuidad iba para la educación superior. Esta propuesta, ha ido revelando las tensiones y falta de decisión política de la Nueva Mayoría, fue modificada en distintas ocasiones durante el año para finalmente ser declarada inconstitucional en diciembre por el Tribunal Constitucional. En respuesta a esto el actual Gobierno aseguró que el Estado garantizaría el derecho a enseñanza superior gratuita en el 2016 de cualquier forma.

Es por ello que en la actualidad observamos cómo se vuelve a generar una propuesta de financiamiento, esta vez bajo la forma de Ley Corta, con el fin de agilizar la puesta en marcha de la gratuidad y lograr que de nueva vez por todas el 2016 se implemente para todas y todos los estudiantes que, perteneciendo a los 5 primeros deciles, ingresen a la educación superior el próximo año. Dentro de la Ley corta figura como una de las pocas exigencias para acceder al beneficio, el que las universidades cuenten con al menos 4 años de acreditación y que además, lo que resultaría en que 3 instituciones estatales y tradicionales queden fuera del mismo:  UTEM, Universidad de Los Lagos y Universidad Arturo Prat. Por más absurdo que parezca, mientras dineros de los y todas las chilenas son impedidos de llegar a estas tres casas de estudio de propiedad estatal que en algunos casos, llegan a tener matrículas con un 95% de estudiantes financiándose a partir de ayudas económicas, sí lo harán a planteles privados como la del Desarrollo o de Los Andes, ambas cercanas o de frentón dirigidas por el Opus Dei.

Por otro lado, también se excluiría a los IP y CFT de la gratuidad, aún cuando el grueso de la composición de estas instituciones son los sectores de más bajos recursos, la prohibición de lucro se reduce a un impedimento respecto a la composición de los directorios fácilmente eludible y desaparece el criterio de triestamentalidad.

Es así como la nueva jugada del gobierno devela diversas falencias de nuestro sistema educativo, no coopera con la superación de estas y finalmente profundiza la concepción de educación no como un derecho social, sino como una mercancía.

Que existan Universidades Estatales con menos de cuatro años de acreditación no hace más que revelar los problemas estructurales de la educación superior en Chile de los que nadie se ha hecho cargo, pues el sistemático abandono de la noción de universidad y educación pública, han provocado que se deje de lado las necesidades de reestructuración, inyección de recursos, fortalecimiento de comunidades educativas, e incentivos de investigación. En detrimento de todo ello, se ha impulsando el fortalecimiento de instituciones que responden a un sistema neoliberal que solo genera excedentes para sus dueños y los intereses empresariales.

Por otro lado, se configura como una pésima señal el que se saque como requisito para la gratuidad la necesidad de gobiernos triestamentales en las instituciones. Si no son todas y todos los miembros de la comunidad educativa que deciden acerca del destino de la misma, se abre el camino para que directorios y autoridades sigan perpetuando el interés económico y mercantil de las universidades además de evitar que se potencie la participación y acción de todos los estamentos, mermando su empoderamiento y capacidad de construcción y crítica frente al conocimiento que se entrega.

Por último, que exigencias respecto a la prohibición del lucro queden relegadas a requisitos tan fáciles de burlar como los que se pretenden imponer, no hace más que entregar una señal en la que se afirma en que el lucro no es uno de los grandes problemas de la educación chilena, alejándose de las demandas que por años ha levantado el movimiento estudiantil en la sociedad: la educación es un derecho social, no puede ser sometida a regímenes transables. Ante ello, resulta todavía más inaceptable el que universidades privadas que el día de hoy están bajo investigación por lucro, sean consideradas como destinatarias de la gratuidad.

Frente a los distintos anuncios de gratuidad y propuestas en reformas educacionales, resulta sumamente preocupante cómo se ha logrado cooptar las demandas del movimiento estudiantil, otorgándoles objetivos radicalmente distintos a los originales que evidencian una alianza público-privada que el día de hoy mantiene la Nueva Mayoría con la Oposición y en el que facciones reformistas como las juventudes de gobierno tienen bastante responsabilidad.

También merecen análisis una serie de otros hechos. El mayor desafío que hoy tiene la CONFECH, es poder fortalecer su programa estudiantil y considerar cambios que logren establecer una movilización fuerte y que realmente haga peso a las propuestas que hasta el momento no hacen más que desvanecer el movimiento estudiantil y las propuestas emanadas de este. Por eso, resulta inconcebible que, frente a la gravedad de la situación, desde las dirigencias del zonal metropolitano se haya decidido convocar a acciones tan recatadas, como una Marcha desde Plaza de Armas. Medidas que parecen casi un autoboicot y no dejan de entregar señales equivocadas acerca de lo que hay que hacer. Por su parte, en la práctica ha quedado en evidencia que tácticas como la “gubernamentalización” y la “parlamentarización” del conflicto estudiantil no generan más que saldos negativos. Se ha perdido el foco inicial de las demandas estudiantiles iniciadas en 2006 y reinstaladas en el 2011 con mayor fuerza, al dejar de centrar progresivamente en ellas, la crítica al modelo económico y al funcionamiento de la educación en general.

Esto es un hecho de vital importancia, en la medida en que mientras más titubeamos en desenmascarar que el problema principal es el sistema económico que nos rige, soluciones que no hacen más que dar continuidad al modelo dejarán de ser cuestionadas, ampliando el camino a cuestiones como la privatización, que ha sido una tendencia desde el periodo de dictadura y que hasta el día de hoy se ha potenciado, generando la consolidación del mercado inclusive desde los gobiernos de la ex Concertación, actual Nueva Mayoría. Ante ello, que los sectores más precarizados de la sociedad se vean en la actualidad más perjudicados y abandonados por las reformas que anuncia el gobierno, no es una coincidencia.

Todo lo mencionado, no provoca más que la necesidad de reiterar un llamado a la movilización, información y acción estudiantil, en que la reorganización, y presión cumplan un rol fundamental para dar un vuelco a lo que los sectores poderosos quieren hacer. Es necesario hoy más que nunca tomar cartas en el asunto y evitar que se sigan cambiando los requerimientos para el acceso a la gratuidad, además de detener la profundización de la precarización de estudiantes que no cuenten con los recursos para costear sus estudios superiores. El postergar todo tipo de movilización solo generaría que las propuestas actuales no tomen en consideración las demandas históricas en cuanto a educación y por las que nos hemos mantenido en lucha por años.

¡¡Arriba las y los que luchan!!

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