La lucha por vivienda y vida digna hoy

Marcha por la vivienda en Santiago. 12 diciembre 2015.

por Movimiento Solidario Vida Digna

Cerca de mil personas protestaron por el derecho a la vivienda el día de ayer. Comités de numerosas comunas de Santiago exigen sus derechos básicos. 

El intenso proceso de urbanización que vive Chile -en especial las principales áreas metropolitanas Santiago, Valparaíso y Concepción- ha configurado una ciudad altamente segregada y desigual. Esto ha traído consigo una serie de problemáticas sociales, culturales y económicas, que muchas veces han sido invisibilizadas bajo el discurso del progreso, pasando por encima de derechos sociales fundamentales para la consecución de una vida digna. La vivienda y el negocio inmobiliario tras ésta, es una de las principales problemáticas que nos afectan, siendo un fiel reflejo de la privatización de la sociedad y, junto a ella, de nuestras vidas.

La ausencia de una política de Estado sobre vivienda, en la que ésta sea reconocida como un derecho social, ha generado que las luchas por vivienda transiten bajo un largo camino de incertidumbres dominado por decretos que cambian cada vez que asume un nuevo gobierno. Esto sumado a la hegemonía de los privados y empresarios en el mercado de suelos, ha configurado una cancha bastante desigual para el movimiento de pobladoras y pobladores.

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Marcha por la vivienda en Santiago. 12 diciembre 2015.

Lo anterior ha ido de la mano con un ejercicio de “desreponsabilización” por parte el Estado a través del Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (MINVU), quien asume un rol meramente subsidiario y fiscalizador. Por consiguiente, la política de vivienda se ha visto enfocada únicamente en la cantidad de “soluciones habitacionales” entregadas, pero no en su calidad, conformando ghettos de viviendas sociales con una nula visión de barrio y ciudad.

Por otro lado, el mercado de suelos y la especulación de su valor en manos del negocio inmobiliario, hacen imposible que los comités de allegadas y allegados consigan un terreno a bajo costo con una buena localización, lo que nos expulsa a las periferias de la ciudad, en sectores con mala conectividad y deficiente infraestructura comunitaria -hospitales, escuelas, áreas verdes, etc. Por lo cual nos vemos obligados a irnos de nuestras comunas de origen rompiendo con el arraigo a un barrio y con ello también nuestras relaciones sociales y familiares, impidiendo que se pueda consolidar una comunidad en el lugar en que se habita.

cajas de fosforosDichos aspectos reducen y degradan la calidad de vida de las y los pobladores. Además, el proceso de expulsión hacia las periferias hace que se acentúe la homogeneidad social, aumentando la segregación residencial, es decir, áreas de la ciudad exclusivamente para ricos y otras para pobres. Esta situación consigue fragmentar la ciudad, excluyendo a los sectores más pobres de servicios y equipamientos de calidad.

Respecto a lo anterior, estamos presenciando una política que ve a la vivienda como un bien de consumo, y no como un derecho, puesto que sólo se pone acento en el valor de la vivienda (materialidad), pero no en las necesidades sociales, eliminando la posibilidad de construir comunidad. Este complejo escenario ha ido de la mano con una política de exclusión y represión hacia las organizaciones sociales, intentando asfixiar el protagonismo que pudieran tener en la construcción de políticas públicas y ciudad. Por lo tanto, la única salida posible es la organización desde abajo, en pos de la configuración de movimientos de lucha, los cuales, desde la reivindicación, la acción directa y la autogestión construyan y gestionen su hábitat, generando así una comunidad organizada.

Es por ello, que desde las organizaciones sociales demandamos hoy: ser gestores de nuestro entorno a través de proyectos autogestionados y participativos; tener la administración de los recursos de vivienda; y contar con un banco de suelos para la construcción de viviendas sociales, actualmente inexistente.

En síntesis, ante la falta de políticas públicas que amparen esta necesidad básica y la inexistente visión de que los sectores más pobres merecemos vivir de forma digna, la actual lucha por la vivienda no sólo se encasilla en la obtención de una casa, sino que apunta a la gestión social del territorio. Poniendo el esfuerzo y lucha de la organización, en la pelea por el derecho a la ciudad, la construcción de comunidad organizada y la recuperación de una vida digna.

[Publicado en la edición N°31 de Solidaridad]

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