Ni una menos: miles de personas se movilizaron en Chile para protestar contra violencia hacia la mujer

Periódico Solidaridad

Los altos índices de violencia y discriminación no se detienen y, pese a ello, no forman parte de la agenda pública ni de la política de Estado. Desde la calle, una voz fuerte se alza para exigir  autonomía física, económica y política de las mujeres. El machismo no pasará.

El Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Violencia contra las Mujeres se realiza en memoria de las hermanas Minerva y María Teresa Mirabal, mujeres dominicanas que formaron parte de la resistencia y fueron asesinadas por la Dictadura de Rafael Leónidas Trujillo. Desde el año 1999 esta fecha se ha convertido en un momento de reflexión, encuentro y protesta contra la violencia como manifestación brutal de la desigualdad entre hombres y mujeres en todo el mundo.

De acuerdo al informe de las Naciones Unidas sobre formas de violencia contra la mujer (2006) se identifica una amplia variedad de modalidades bajo las cuales se presenta: violencia en las relaciones de pareja, prácticas tradicionales nocivas como la mutilación genital, aborto selectivo de niñas, matrimonio forzado, violencia vinculada con la dote, delitos contra las mujeres cometidos en nombre del “honor”, maltrato a mujeres viudas, feminicidio, violencia sexual, acoso sexual y violencia en el trabajo, y tráfico de mujeres con fines de explotación sexual o laboral.

En Chile la situación es preocupante. Este año 51 mujeres han sido violentamente asesinadas, pero desde el Servicio Nacional de la Mujer, solo se han registrado 38 víctimas de femicidio, excluyendo a aquellas mujeres que no fueron asesinadas en el contexto familiar o de convivencia. Las insuficiencias de la Ley 20.400 se convierte en una peligrosa arma a favor de los agresores.

Una ley que no protege: Erika Romina Rivera Tagle

De acuerdo al reportaje de María Francisca Valenzuela, el 29 de mayo de 2013 Sergio Tranamil llegó a la posta 4 de Ñuñoa con el cuerpo de su pareja afirmando que habían sido asaltados mientras trotaban y posteriormente arrancó. Erika Romina Rivera Tagle de 27 años, quien ya se encontraba sin vida había sido asesinada a golpes.

Cuando ocurrió el crimen, Erika y Sergio Llevaban cerca de diez años de pololeo y vivían en la casa de sus suegros. Al poco tiempo de iniciar la convivencia, Erika abandonó sus estudios universitarios de medicina, se alejó de sus amigos –incluso de su madre–y comenzó a evitar el contacto con el exterior.

Otilia Tagle, madre de Erika, realizó múltiples denuncias en el camino, pero la respuesta siempre fue la misma; “Si Erika no constataba lesiones y realizaba la denuncia, nada se podía hacer”. Dos semanas antes del crimen, Otilia fue a pedir ayuda a la justicia para que su hija pudiera salir del domicilio, ya que incluso había puesto una denuncia por presunta desgracia al no tener noticias de ella. No hubo respuesta. De golpe y sin preparación, Otilia se enteró por la prensa que su hija era el femicidio número catorce del año 2013.

Erika presentaba múltiples golpes y fracturas que reflejaban años de maltrato, sumado a un embarazo del que nadie había dado cuenta. Su muerte fue debido a una gran golpiza, anemia y septicemia generada por un embrión sin vida. El cuerpo de Erika estaba agotado, por lo que en un estado final de agonía expulsó fluidos corporales que fueron confundidos con comida en la primera autopsia.

La lucha de Otilia continuó, ella misma recogía pruebas, asistía a fiscalía y realizaba su propia investigación. Tras muchas horas de trabajo logró revocar la situación inicial que aventuraba una condena de no más de seis años para el asesino. Finalmente, Sergio Tranamil fue condenado a la primera cadena perpetua por femicidio en Chile. Actualmente también se investiga a la familia del femicida por su complicidad en el caso, ya que incluso fueron encontradas pruebas en las que la víctima pedía ayuda.

Violencia y acceso a la justicia: una relación incómoda

En Chile no existe información ni voluntad institucional para mejorar el acceso a la justicia para las mujeres víctimas de violencia. Mientras que en el campo internacional se consolida un amplio consenso acerca de que cualquiera de sus manifestaciones constituye una violación a los derechos humanos, sus limitaciones en Chile son evidentes: no existen factores que faciliten o permitan que las mujeres víctimas busquen asistencia, protección o reparación.

Actualmente el Estado deja la responsabilidad de denuncias exclusivamente en las víctimas, ignorando procesos de manipulación psicológica, temores, secuestros en el propio hogar y vulnerabilidad absoluta en la que muchas veces se encuentran las personas.

Y el escenario es tremendamente complejo porque cualquier estrategia dirigida erradicar la violencia contra las mujeres en todas sus manifestaciones, debe incluir necesariamente mecanismos para asegurar su autonomía física, económica y política.

De ahí la importancia del feminismo. Hoy en Chile, el patriarcado se expresa a través de la legislación, que no permite a las mujeres tener soberanía sobre nuestros cuerpos y fuerza a una maternidad obligatoria; se expresa a través de una política educacional sexista, que enseña desde pequeña/os las diferencias de género sobre las que se sostendrá el poderío masculino; a través de la institución de la familia, donde las mujeres aprenden a relacionarse de manera privativa y secreta con su sexualidad y cuerpo y donde desarrollan más cabalmente las nociones (opresivas) sobre masculinidad y feminidad. El femicidio es una de sus expresiones más brutales, donde cada año las mujeres pierden su vida en relaciones supuestamente amorosas, pero profundamente violentas. Se expresa también en ese amor romántico que enseña a tolerar el maltrato y el desprecio.

Pero la lucha no se detiene en políticas públicas, puesto que el patriarcado entra en profunda comunión con el sistema económico en el que vivimos: las mujeres son mano de obra barata para el capital, y apenas tienen resguardo de sus derechos; las mujeres aún continúan ganando menos sueldo por la misma labor realizada por un hombre, concentran mayores índices de pobreza y son discriminadas por el sistema de salud por estar en “edad fértil”: la crianza en Chile es una tarea casi exclusivamente femenina. Evidenciar esta realidad y profundizar su análisis permitirá enfrentar los desafíos futuros para transformar las relaciones de producción y reproducción de la vida en sociedad.

131 Comments en Ni una menos: miles de personas se movilizaron en Chile para protestar contra violencia hacia la mujer

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