La violencia machista: un fenómeno estructural del patriarcado

Por Gema Ortega, militante de La Alzada-Acción Feminista Libertaria

Hace 55 años, el 25 de noviembre de 1960 fueron asesinadas las hermanas Mirabal: Minerva, Patria y María Teresa. Las hermanas Mirabal lucharon contra la tiranía de Trujillo, fueron activistas por los derechos humanos, mujeres revolucionarias, y por eso fueron perseguidas, encarceladas hasta ser eliminadas. El año 1981 en el 1º encuentro Feminista latinoamericano y de El Caribe, en Colombia es propuesto este día como el “Día Internacional contra la Violencia hacia las Mujeres”, conmemorando así a estas valientes mujeres y visibilizando una cruda realidad que afecta día a día a miles y miles de mujeres.

En este marco, el papel que juega el movimiento feminista contra la violencia hacia las mujeres, es fundamental para sacudir el miedo y la apatía, para levantar y fortalecer la lucha por la dignidad de todas y todos. Asimismo, permite visibilizar lo que el patriarcado y la Dictadura han reducido, invisibilizado y ridiculizado: la heterosexualidad obligatoria y toda la violencia que trae consigo.

La violencia contra las mujeres es un fenómeno estructural que busca excluir, oprimir y explotar a las mujeres, que tiene como origen y sustento el sistema heteropatriarcal. Existen innumerables justificaciones sobre el uso de la violencia contra las mujeres, no obstante, podemos agruparlas en dos. En primer lugar, el proceso diferencial de socialización de los sexos, -se educa a los niños y niñas según roles determinados, y según estos se les asignan diferentes capacidades, afectos, emociones, colores, juguetes, etc.-. Desde pequeños los niños son adiestrados a identificar lo masculino con la fuerza y la violencia, y las niñas con lo delicado y maternal. En segundo lugar, la persistencia de definiciones sociales de subordinación, que obligan a comportarse como “señoritas”, deben ser deseables pero no lo suficientemente provocadoras, deben ser decorosas y deben poner el límite necesario, finalmente las mujeres deben respeto y sumisión a los varones.

La violencia aparece como un efectivo medio de control social sobre la conducta de las mujeres, el mensaje es muy claro: una mujer “sola” está en peligro, su única salvación es ponerse bajo la protección de un hombre y en compensación a su amparo, la mujer debe asegurar la reproducción y cuidado de su prole. Podríamos pensar que estas consideraciones son parte del pasado, sin embargo, es cosa de revisar expresiones  comunes como “caminaba sola”, “hay minas que se lo merecen”, “saca a pasear a tu polola” o incluso todavía el peso del “nombre del padre”, es un peso a cargar: “se perdió el apellido de la familia”. Esta relación de propiedad establece la violencia contra las mujeres  como un  fenómeno privado, incluso como un derecho de los hombres, que puede ser visto como algo perjudicial, pero que es parte de la esfera personal.

De esta manera, la separación de lo personal y lo público -y el confinamiento de las mujeres a la esfera de lo personal- constituye a lo público como la única esfera de derecho y donde se desarrollan aspectos fundamentales de la vida humana. Sin embargo, esto fue posible sólo debido a la exclusión de las mujeres. En algunos casos la exigencia de mantener a las mujeres a raya, en su “lugar”, puede llevar a actos que sorprenden por su brutalidad y crueldad como el uso de ácido para deformar los rostros de las mujeres que “deshonran” a los hombres, mujeres asesinadas por quienes decían amarlas y protegerlas, y luego dejadas a la intemperie, en basurales como objetos de desechos porque no se ajustan a los anhelos y deseos de esos hombres.

En los últimos años se ha incrementado el número de muertes de mujeres, también se ha incrementado la saña con que se comenten estos asesinatos, lo que ha llamado la atención de los medios de comunicación y la opinión pública. No obstante, el movimiento feminista ha denunciado por años esta situación y buscado visibilizar su causa y ha dado una lucha férrea, pero la mayoría de las veces sólo ha encontrado indiferencia o cómplice silencio.

Chile es hoy uno de los bastiones del neoliberalismo que desencadena la explotación femenina, mediante la expansión continua del trabajo doméstico, al que se le transfieren responsabilidades dadas como naturales y que deberían ser asumidas por la colectividad (guarderías, cuidado de enfermos, cuidado de ancianos, políticas de prevención en salud, nutrición, etc.). Esto ha ocurrido mediante la mercantilización de los que antes fueron derechos sociales y que hoy las mujeres pobres tienen que asumir con su trabajo gratuito. El modelo neoliberal y patriarcal que se aplica y perfecciona en Chile amenaza la lucha contra las desigualdades materiales y de acceso a los derechos sociales y culturales, que estamos llamadas a defender.

[Publicado en la edición N°31 de Solidaridad]

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