La chispa que puede encender la pradera kurda

Por José Antonio Gutiérrez D.

La cuestión kurda es de esas cosas que, aunque nadie las mencione, está en el corazón de la crisis siria en particular, y del Medio Oriente en general. No es casual que el vocero de la OTAN, Jens Stoltenberg, haya respondido al derribamiento del bombardero ruso por parte de Turquía afirmando que “estamos en solidaridad con Turquía y apoyamos la integridad territorial de nuestro aliado turco” (1). ¿Por qué hablar de la integridad territorial cuando esta cuestión no ha sido mencionada por nadie en medio de las actuales tensiones ruso-turcas? ¿Qué tiene que ver la integridad territorial de Turquía con el derribamiento de un avión ruso en territorio sirio? Aparentemente nada; sin embargo, en la realidad, tiene mucho que ver gracias a ese actor a veces invisible, que son los kurdos.

Las acciones del gobierno turco en la región del Levante son extraordinariamente desestabilizadoras. Mientras juegan la carta de la defensa a ultranza de la soberanía nacional para justificar la agresión al bombardero ruso, sus fronteras son extraordinariamente porosas para los combatientes yihadistas rumbo a Siria y su ejército apoya soterradamente al Estado Islámico (ISIS). De hecho, la reciente campaña turca contra el Estado Islámico fue, en realidad, una ofensiva en contra del movimiento guerrillero kurdo PKK. El islamismo en sus variantes totalitarias no molesta a Turquía demasiado; de hecho, el proyecto político del presidente turco Erdoğan –que mezcla de manera oportunista el islamismo político y sus pretensiones de sultán, con la conservación de las bases del Estado autoritario kemalista (incluido su Estado profundo)- se ha ido acercando a la idea de proyectar la hegemonía sunita en la región de la mano de los saudíes y los emiratos, quienes se han convertido en sus aliados objetivos en la región. El principal enemigo de Erdoğan son los kurdos: la única fuerza autóctona que en terreno ha demostrado capacidad de luchar en contra del Estado Islámico, articulados en el PKK y el YPG (2). Objetivamente, Erdoğan ha convertido a los enemigos de sus enemigos, en sus amigos.

La OTAN se ve, entonces, forzada a plantear su defensa de la integridad territorial turca, porque saben que los kurdos miran toda esta crisis como una oportunidad de luchar por su derecho a la autodeterminación represado por un siglo de autoritarismo secular y religioso. En el Kurdistán nace un nuevo mundo en medio de las ruinas. Es un mundo hermoso, aún embrionario, de participación popular, de organizaciones horizontales, donde se busca la relación armoniosa con el medio ambiente y la igualdad de las personas, la liberación de la mujer y la fraternidad entre los pueblos que habitan la región, independientemente de etnia y credo. Este proyecto lo han llamado “Confederalismo Democrático”. El proyecto totalitario y sectario de Erdoğan odia a ese mundo y lo quiere ver ahogado en sangre. Por esos las bombas en Amed (Diyarbakır), Pirsûs (Suruç) y en Ankara; por eso las incursiones militares que han dejado más de medio millar de muertos en la región kurda del Estado turco (Silvan, Gimgim, Silopiya, Cizîr).

Es imposible seguir haciendo la vista gorda ante la evidencia: Turquía apoyará al Estado Islámico porque les sirve en la lucha contra los kurdos –que amenazan la integridad del Estado kemalista- y en su lucha en contra de Assad –piedra en el zapato para el proyecto sunita sectario de las dictaduras fundamentalistas pro-EEUU. Sencillamente, le son funcionales. Y los protegerá todo lo que pueda, aunque eso le cueste tensiones con Rusia. La OTAN, indirectamente, se ha visto involucrada en este juego. La OTAN, con EEUU a la cabeza, no logra sino dar palos de ciego, tras la humillación mundial a la que ha sido sometida por la intervención rusa en Siria: tras años de intervencionismo, solamente han logrado fortalecer al Estado Islámico y reproducir el fiasco que dejaron en Libia. Su intención jamás ha sido otra que derrocar a Assad –para lo cual se han apoyado en los islamistas. En semanas, Rusia demostró que se puede golpear y hacer retroceder al Estado Islámico.

Los kurdos miran, toman nota, y combaten en el terreno. Mientras occidente se da en el pecho y habla fuerte contra el islamismo, no hará nada en el terreno porque está atado de manos por Turquía y por los califatos árabes. Por eso Erdoğan reacciona con histeria ante la presencia militar rusa –porque cambia el equilibrio militar en contra del Estado Islámico. Peor aún para Erdoğan, este equilibrio puede cambiar a favor de los kurdos. Sabido es que Assad está dispuesto a respetar su autonomía y que los kurdos no están interesados en derrocar al gobierno de Damasco: su objetivo ha sido combatir al Estado Islámico y tratar de crear un mundo nuevo, en sus territorios en medio del caos y la tragedia de la guerra. Ahora, Erdoğan es quien podría haber dado el empujón necesario para que Rusia se decida a dar el respaldo y reconocimiento al movimiento de liberación kurdo, que necesita urgentemente armas y apoyos logísticos. Esa es la preocupación de la OTAN por la integridad territorial turca. Los dados, empero, ya están echados y el acto de torpe desesperación de Erdoğan puede costarle más caro de lo que cree. Hay un bebé hermoso que espera nacer, y, en medio de la complejidad geopolítica y las rivalidades entre las potencias, los pueblos del mundo también pueden actuar como matronas solidarias en su parto. Ese bebé es la experiencia libertaria del pueblo kurdo.

Notas:

(1) http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/11/nato-turkey-russian-jet-syria-151124181649801.html Énfasis del autor.

(2) Los peshmergas de Irak, apoyados por EEUU, son increíblemente incompetentes para combatir.

 

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