Vecinos contra vecinos

Por José Antonio Gutiérrez D.  

Una determinada sociedad, o es racista, o no lo es, (…) decir, por ejemplo, que el norte de Francia es más racista que el sur, que el racismo es producto de la chusma y que, por lo tanto, de ninguna manera afecta a la clase dominante, que Francia es uno de los países menos racistas en el mundo, es propio de hombres incapaces de pensar con claridad’ (Frantz Fanon)

La cristiana Europa y el Medio Oriente musulmán han tenido pésimas relaciones de vecinos. Tras la desintegración del Imperio Turco-Otomano, tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, las potencias europeas y EEUU establecieron su hegemonía en la región. Los países europeos han sido vecinos que nadie quisiera en la casa de al lado: cuando no han estado demasiado ocupados intentando colonizar los países del mundo árabe, se han empecinado en apoyar dictadores “buenos” o en tumbar a los dictadores “malos”, armando a los que consideran sus amigos. El descalabro ocasionado por más de medio siglo de políticas intervencionistas y colonialistas europeas ha golpeado duramente a la sociedad francesa, aunque en una manera mucho más suave que los miles de golpes que hace décadas vienen recibiendo, por causa de estas mismas políticas, los palestinos, iraquíes, sirios, libaneses, argelinos, etc. Dicen que la del viernes fue la peor masacre en Francia desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial, olvidando, convenientemente, la masacre a garrotazos por parte de la policía de 200 argelinos en pleno centro de París en 1961. El presidente Hollande sale de su sopor y grita que esto es una declaración de guerra por parte de ISIS; suponemos que los bombardeos que Hollande lleva realizando en Siria hace un año han sido una declaración de buenas intenciones. Curiosamente, ISIS hoy no sería nada de no ser por el respaldo militar de Francia, Reino Unido y EEUU a fundamentalistas en Siria y en otras partes del Medio Oriente.

Tal cual en Enero, después de los atentados a las oficinas de Charlie Hebdo, se alza el espectro aterrador del musulmán fanático, que detrás de su apariencia benevolente oculta un terrorista en potencia. El terror macro-político, de los bombardeos y las declaraciones de las coaliciones internacionales, se entromete en el espacio de lo micro-político. El terror sale de la cobertura noticiosa y sienta pie firme en el barrio. Ese barrio que, no sabemos cómo, dejó de ser patrimonio de los blancos y hoy es compartido con las “razas inferiores”, árabes, negros, gente con costumbres raras, con lenguas inentendibles (¿qué estarán diciendo de nosotros a nuestras espaldas?), que no se asimilan a “nuestras” costumbres superiores. Se duda del vecino barbado con túnica. El miedo difuso y omnipresente del colonizador hacia el otro, encuentra una materialización concreta en el árabe y en el musulmán. Hay que expulsarlos, hay que requisarlos, hay que marcarlos, hay que evitar que sigan entrando refugiados. Los medios dan rienda suelta a la imagen fantasiosa que Europa tiene de sí misma, sin ningún asomo de vergüenza: esa “puerta abierta” hacia los refugiados tiene que cambiar; no podemos seguir siendo tan “tolerantes”. Estas cosas nos pasan por ser tan buenos, piensan entonces los europeos.

Y luego de ese acto de auto-complacencia, se pasa al estado de agresividad: si hemos sido buenos ahora tenemos que ser más duros, bombardear más, ojalá enviar tropas, hundir sus botes e impedir que ingresen a nuestro territorio buscando refugio (en teoría, el refugio no es caridad sino una obligación de todos los países miembros de la ONU). La ideología de la contención que se ha incrustado en el bloque dominante -contener a sus refugiados, contener a sus masas desempleadas, contener a sus enfermedades-, versión caricaturesca de las doctrinas contra-insurgentes, aplicadas ahora a escala global, contagia a toda la ciudadanía: todos comienzan a sufrir de esa ansiedad, de ese miedo patológico al otro que denunciaba Fanon en “Los Condenados de la Tierra”. Ese otro bárbaro que espera destruir las puertas de Roma, beber nuestro vino, violar nuestras mujeres, acostarse en nuestra cama… reemplazarnos. Todos tenemos que cerrar filas y entregarnos en medio de la borrachera patriotera al apoyo irrestricto a las nuevas aventuras militares… es decir, echar fuego al petróleo. ¡Ay de quién no se cuadre con el discurso dominante! Ellos son los traidores, los apologistas del terrorismo. Como dijera Marx, cuando los de arriba tocan el violín, los de abajo no pueden sino ponerse a bailar.

Siendo claros, Europa nunca ha sido un buen vecino, ni en el Mediterráneo ni en sus propios barrios europeos. Nunca ha existido una puerta abierta para los refugiados (y sí muchos campos de concentración, operativos militares para interceptar y hundir sus botes, cercas alambradas y electrificadas para que no pasen); nunca se ha pensado en otra cosa que adelantar intereses geoestratégicos muy particulares y propios en todas sus aventuras militares en el Oriente Medio y en África; ni nunca han sido tan tolerantes. La historia de Europa está marcada, como la de pocos lugares en el mundo, por la persecución al otro. Hubo una época, a fines del siglo XIX, en que los refugiados (en su mayoría rusos, muchos de ellos judíos, todos de izquierda), también eran vistos con sospecha, perseguidos y apresados en las capitales europeas. La imagen del judío-bolchevique que amenaza nuestras instituciones comenzó a cristalizarse en base a ese odio ancestral hacia las otras religiones por parte del cristianismo europeo en todas sus vertientes. Sabemos cómo terminó esa historia. De lo que muchos no se dan cuenta, es que, a diferencia de la auto-proclamada tolerancia hacia los “musulmanes”, este grupo ha sido objeto de una particular estigmatización que no se veía desde la época de la persecución a los judíos en la década del ‘30. De hecho, son el único grupo religioso en cuya contra se han redactado leyes específicas en Europa, como la ley contra los minaretes en Suiza y las leyes en contra del velo en Francia o Bélgica. La ultra-derecha española también apela a su odio centenario, que arrastran desde la llamada “re-conquista”, y Francia reafirma en Notre Dame su carácter católico (Jacques Hébert se debe estar revolcando en su tumba).

¿Cuál es el impacto que esto tiene entre los vecinos? Una clarividente película francesa, llamada “La Haine”, el odio, lo presagiaba hace dos décadas. La Europa que alguna vez se jactó de haber creado una sociedad democrática y pluralista sobre las cenizas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, hoy se hunde entre las crisis múltiples, un creciente fanatismo religioso (en todos los credos), el auge de la intolerancia y de la xenofobia. En este ambiente, no prosperan sentimientos altruistas ni humanitarios, ni democráticos, sino que bajo este alero, al ritmo de los tambores de la guerra, se desarrolla el espectro de los nuevos autoritarismos que han encontrado creciente aceptación en quienes votan más y más por la ultra-derecha. Europa y el Medio Oriente se moldean mutuamente, más de lo que se creyera a simple vista. Las ansiedades anticipan y manufacturan realidades. Hay resistencias, desde luego, y la revolución que implementan los kurdos en el corazón de Medio Oriente es una buena señal que no todo está perdido. Pero Europa está siendo consumida por el miedo, el odio, la ansiedad, el instinto de superioridad imperial. Por lo pronto, veremos llamados a responder de manera enérgica, a profundizar exactamente la misma política intervencionista que ha producido el descalabro en el Medio Oriente. Política que, en última instancia, es responsable de la enorme tragedia humana que está ocurriendo en las calles de Damasco y de París. Ellos se llevan las ganancias de la guerra, mientras la gente común y corriente (en Siria, en Francia, en Turquía, en Kurdistán, donde sea) es la que pone los muertos. Ellos tocan el violín, y nosotros bailamos.

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