Crítica literaria: La ciudad es un cuerpo y viceversa

Por Patricio Contreras

Mapa de guerra, de Eduardo Serrano Velásquez.
Das Kapital Ediciones
Poesía. 64 páginas.

De entrada, debo señalar que Mapa de guerra, primer poemario de Eduardo Serrano, es obsesivo y coherente. Para mí, esos dos aspectos son muy positivos. El autor se posiciona muy bien en este libro, dejando abierta una declaración de principios y entregándose al combate cual mariscal de campo, trazando este mapa que es metáfora de una estrategia bélica para la vida misma. De hecho, nos parte diciendo: “hacernos un mapa de guerra / en todo el cuerpo / entonces parecía ser el método” (15). Y comprendemos de inmediato que la guerra será total.

Para aumentar la tensión, se entiende la ciudad como un espacio reducido y vigilado, donde el hablante habita a la manera de un reo con ansias de venganza, sin esconder su paranoia y su hambre de destrucción. Más adelante, avanzado el libro, nos llega a señalar: “yo soy el Hambre / corriendo por las calles / de la ciudad desnuda / en forma de bestia / desgarrando con mi hocico de perro / la basura completa de los días” (42). De esta manera, el hablante se concibe a sí mismo en su animalidad, en su marginalidad horrorosa, entendiendo que no hay espacio para él y que deberá luchar.

Pero hay un aspecto determinante en el concepto central de esta obra: para Eduardo Serrano la ciudad es un cuerpo y viceversa. Nos dice: “todo el cuerpo como una ciudad / de carne y hueso podía ser” (32); o, describiendo a la ciudad: “los márgenes de su mapa cuerpo / son venas rotas aplastadas / pariendo direcciones / a la luz roída de los postes / como si el enrejado abierto / no fuera más que los huesos partidos / de aquella fisonomía accidental” (17). De esta manera, el autor nos proyecta como construcciones humanas rondando la ciudad, pequeños mundos accidentales dentro de este monstruo urbano que se va devorando a sí mismo; o, en palabras del propio autor, cada uno es “solo un mapa vivo sobre el suelo / como una cartografía móvil / en todo caso / o una ciudad no fundada” (60).

Esta situación es la que lleva al hablante a tendencias anárquicas y desestabilizadoras, que pretenden quebrar la cartografía total de la ciudad hasta que el mapa propio pueda existir en ella, sin persecuciones ni acusaciones de desvarío. Pero el panorama es terrible y el hablante parece destinado a los hospitales psiquiátricos, a las cárceles y a las típicas periferias de todo sistema. Y no sólo él, sino la gran mayoría de las personas, consciente o inconscientemente, porque “el mapa nocturno de Chile / entonces gotea en cada esquina / sangra en cada vuelta / se destruye en cada giro / que los transeúntes imponen / en su pérdida tortuosa” (18). Porque, resumiendo, el país es una prisión del cual somos rehenes y cómplices, y la ciudad es sólo una parte de este gran crimen territorial.

Como se entenderá, las imágenes en la poesía de Eduardo Serrano son potentes y Mapa de guerra está plagado de ellas. Además, el libro está acompañado de una serie de collages a nombre de Arturo Serrano, que a mi gusto no vienen al caso. Que el libro esté dividido en cuatro apartados y el último sea sólo un collage es un tremendo despropósito. Con un remate así, se pierde la intensidad que se venía acumulando y se atenta contra las imágenes poéticas ya sugeridas en cada texto. Sin lugar a dudas, la inclusión de estas ilustraciones fue una decisión desafortunada, aunque por suerte eso no malogra el resultado total. Sólo molesta a ratos y distrae de las verdaderas imágenes que le entregan coherencia a este libro inaugural, que perfectamente podría ser el plano para una construcción mayor.

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