Violencia en la Araucanía: autoatentados, paros de empresarios y reaparición pública de grupos fascistas

Ilustración por Orleans

por Salvador Oskita y Espartaco Gatti

A más de una semana de la injustificada detención del fotógrafo Felipe Durán, presentamos un artículo que sirve para comprender la lucha que ha dado el pueblo mapuche por defender su cosmovisión, su lengua y su territorio.

Los problemas en la Araucanía no son nuevos. La zona está en guerra hace más de 400 años, primero contra la invasión del imperio español, luego contra la imposición del Estado chileno.

La actual etapa del conflicto se remonta a la década de los noventa. En ella se pueden diferenciar diversos referentes y proyectos que luchan por la autodeterminación del pueblo mapuche, algunos que inclusive involucran tanto la organización política como la militar, pero que tienen un denominador común: defender su cosmovisión y espiritualidad propia, su cultura, su lengua y su territorio.

Una de las principales reivindicaciones de las y los mapuche es reconstruir el Wallmapu a partir de las reducciones que se crearon luego de la promulgación de la Ley Indígena. Hace uno veinte años el pueblo mapuche nuevamente despertó; en varios puntos se levantaron comunidades y se produjeron tomas de tierras, en protesta contra las precarias condiciones de vida. En aquellos años algunos dirigentes fueron tomados detenidos, acusados de abigeato y usurpación de terrenos.

Pero el hecho que coloca en el tapete nacional el conflicto ocurre a fines de 1997. Comuneros de Lumaco, cansados de los constantes asedios e injusticias hacia su pueblo, amparadas por carabineros y empresarios de la zona, decidieron manifestarse quemando tres camiones pertenecientes a la Forestal Arauco.

Lo anterior activó las alarmas del gobierno central, el cual culpó de la acción a una supuesta reorganización de “grupos subversivos” en la vieja frontera. Jamás imaginaron que la acción fuese la respuesta legítima de un pueblo que se reactivaba y levantaba la cabeza frente a siglos de despojo y miseria.

Así nace una vía “rupturista” que apuesta por la reconstrucción del pueblo nación mapuche a partir del control territorial productivo. Con el paso de los años, debido a la militarización de la zona, los constantes allanamientos, la criminalización, los asesinatos de comuneros, la cárcel y la represión, el movimiento comienza a disociarse e incluso emergen grupos que sostienen un camino “institucional” que apela al copamiento de las instancias de poder local, principalmente municipios.

El  escenario actual

Durante fines de agosto camioneros de la Araucanía se movilizaron en contra de lo que ellos denominan “delincuencia” y “terrorismo”: ellos acusan como responsables de la quema de varios camiones al pueblo mapuche, y exigen al gobierno que actué con mano dura para frenar esta situación. Sin embargo, existen sobrados antecedentes judiciales que han podido demostrar que existen casos de “autoatentados”, los cuales son realizados por los transportistas para cobrar millonarias pólizas de seguros; la condena por cobro de seguro fraudulento contra Hugo Castro Delgado y Orli Martini Castro por provocar un incendio intencional a un vehículo de su propiedad ocurrido el 18 de junio de 2014 en las cercanías de Padre las Casas es una demostración clara de esta tesis.

Además, la vinculación del gremio camionero a los sectores más conservadores de la sociedad chilena no es nueva. No hay que olvidar que este sector jugo un rol relevante en la desestabilización del gobierno de la Unidad Popular, participando activamente en el paro patronal de octubre de 1972, financiado por la CIA y promovido por los partidos golpistas.

Durante su “marcha” los transportistas bloquearon rutas a vista y paciencia de las fuerzas policiales, y agredieron a conductores y a otros camioneros que se negaron a participar de la farsa. Sin embargo, lo más preocupante de este “movimiento”, es que no solo fue apoyado directamente por los sectores más recalcitrantes de la rancia derecha chilena, sino que marcó la reaparición pública de viejos grupos fascistas: por primera vez en décadas se dejaron ver ondeando banderas de la organización paramilitar Patria y Libertad a vista y paciencia de todo el mundo.

En una entrevista, Héctor Llaitul, histórico dirigente de la CAM (Coordinadora Arauco Malleco), mencionó que el objetivo final de este tipo de movilizaciones es poder justificar aún más la militarización de la zona, agudizando las ya existentes contradicciones entre el pueblo mapuche y los sectores dominantes de la región.

Ilustración por Orleans

Ilustración por Orleans

[publicado en la edición N°30 de Solidaridad]

111 Comments en Violencia en la Araucanía: autoatentados, paros de empresarios y reaparición pública de grupos fascistas

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