Doppelgänger, tragedias y gatos

Hystera/Histrión, de Fanny Campos Espinoza.
Balmaceda Arte Joven Ediciones.
Poesía. 108 páginas.

Por Patricio Contreras N.

Parto mi lectura crítica desde un detalle que parecerá antojadizo y hasta ridículo, pero en el fondo no lo es: la foto de la autora incluida en la solapa. En ella aparece Fanny Campos retratada de perfil frente a un espejo. Gracias a ese pequeño gesto, se nos presenta dos veces su figura, vista desde diferentes ángulos. Hystera/Hystrión me parece fruto de un juego similar, donde las perspectivas se confunden, aunque el objetivo final sea simplemente leerse a sí misma, construyendo un relato poético del pasado de la hablante planteado desde la actualidad.

“Hystera” en griego antiguo quiere decir “matriz” y se refiere al origen o al último vestigio de las cosas. El término también era usado popularmente para referirse al útero o a los testículos. Por otra parte, los “hystriones” eran actores callejeros que se disfrazaban para representar sus papeles , por lo cual entendemos al “histrión” como un ser enmascarado y teatral. Ambos conceptos, expuestos desde el título, cruzan de principio a fin el presente libro, donde la feminidad erotizada y la pluralidad de voces –concurrentes a través de intertextos, personajes secundarios y referencias literarias– cobran un protagonismo exacerbado, llegándose a enunciar este conjunto de textos como “poema en tres actos”.

Para completar este cuadro, la autora incluye largas notas explicativas donde se refiere a la hablante como “la personaje”, aludiendo a su pasado biográfico, llegando a admitir que inició este libro “[…] hacía ya una década atrás, cuando escribió estos adolescentes poemas que sólo ahora ven la luz” (100).

Todo este preámbulo es sumamente necesario para entender la lógica y el funcionamiento de Hystera/Hystrión. Fanny Campos presenta sus tópicos, sus urgencias y sus motivaciones literarias a través de este escenario, donde convive también con sus gatos Báthory y Byron (inspirados en Erzsébet Báthory de Ecsed y Lord Byron), su pez Dalí (alusión al pintor español) y un ex pololo fanático de Bram Stoker. Todos estos guiños a la literatura y al arte en general, se complementan con libros, alusiones y citas a Pizarnik y Baudelaire, y con posters e imágenes de Millais, Delacroix y Artemisia Gentileschi –debidamente incluidos al final de las notas–, que adornan o se sitúan de diferentes maneras en la habitación de la hablante/personaje, generando un entramado intertextual que puede llegar a parecernos alucinante o simplemente saturado.

“La tina llena de sangre / me recuerda a Báthory / mi gata lleva su nombre y es curioso / maúlla cada vez que me corto / y cada vez que cae una nueva gota / Byron rasguña los vidrios de la ventana” (19), nos cuenta la personaje al principio de la obra, señalando la importancia de los felinos como personajes secundarios y la estética vampiresca que definirá el libro, la cual al principio me pareció intensa, pero al avanzar en la lectura notamos que se va sobreexplotando hasta el hartazgo, tornándose totalmente predecible.

De todas maneras, Hystera/Hystrión goza de muchos puntos altos y una poesía que no debería aburrir a ningún lector, ya que nos atrae no sólo por los interesantes recursos estilísticos antes mencionados, sino también por pasajes que se nos presentan a ratos como agradables hallazgos.

“Con el vestido que más te gusta / me dispongo / a tomar tu cabeza / empapado parecerá ceñirse / todavía más al cuerpo” (41), escribe la autora en el poema “Judith/Artemisia”, uno de los que más destaco del conjunto, donde se presenta la tragedia de la pintora Artemisia Gentileschi, reflejando su drama en el cuadro Judith decapitando a Holofernes, donde además interviene la voz poética de Fanny Campos, completando un juego de perspectivas que nos recuerda al célebre y paradigmático cuadro Las meninas, de Diego Velázquez. Por otra parte, el poema “Instantánea de Polaroid” comienza así: “En los ojos de estos gatos / adivino la hora / en la que el reloj / se detuvo / hace ya tantos siglos” (33). En el mismo, se suma como epígrafe una frase de El spleen de París, de Charles Baudelaire, donde justamente se refiere a los antiguos chinos que veían la hora en los ojos de los felinos, llevando la escena a la actualidad de la fotografía y jugando nuevamente con las perspectivas, los intertextos y las referencias literarias.

Con estos dos últimos fragmentos, me propongo además volver al principio: la foto en la solapa. Porque hacia el final del libro, el juego de perspectivas se intensifica y me parece que hay en él una suerte de doppelgänger, una especie de fantasma de la misma autora, que es descrito como “la personaje”, en un relato poético donde autora, hablante y personaje son tres miradas distintas a las mismas escenas. Para entendernos mejor, la autora es quien escribe, la hablante quien enuncia y la personaje esa encarnación fantasmagórica que es observada y retratada por la propia autora, generando un curioso juego que le viene muy bien a la estética oscura y barroca del libro, que vuelve a recordarme a Velázquez y su antiguo paradigma.

Para ser sincero, creo que todos los recursos literarios antes mencionados pueden gustarnos o no; pueden llamarnos la atención o pueden parecernos prescindibles. Pero, en particular, destaco la originalidad de la propuesta presente en Hystera/Hystrión, obra en la cual Fanny Campos nos invita a su atractivo teatro, donde interactúan en escena sus más íntimas obsesiones. Esto para mí es fundamental, ya que ella misma señala: “[…] es imposible ver / los propios ojos / de frente” (66). Por este preciso motivo, lo que he querido llamar doppelgänger se nos presenta como ilusión y en el libro sólo queda la autora leyendo a su fantasma, y ese juego macabro me parece notable.

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