“Kobane es un símbolo para toda la humanidad”

Fotografía de referencia.

por José Antonio Gutiérrez D.

Lo que reproducimos a continuación es la primera parte de las impresiones que recogió nuestro compañero José Antonio Gutiérrez de viaje en medio de la región de Rojava (Kurdistán Sirio), lugar en donde se desarrolla un interesantísimo proyecto revolucionario en el que están envueltas millones de personas. Luego de la derrota del Estado Islámico en el cerco de Kobane, tras heroicos combates, el pueblo kurdo ha comenzado a reconstruir la vida social entre todas y todos, de abajo hacia arriba, con una clara impronta antiestatal.

 

Bozan Xelil trabajaba como periodista en Siria hasta hace algunos años. Hoy en día, mientras se desarrolla la revolución kurda en Rojava, la región occidental de Kurdistán, en territorio del Estado sirio, participa activamente en ella. Él es originario de Kobane, la ciudad que se hizo emblemática por su heroica resistencia en contra del Estado Islámico y el bloqueo turco. Es miembro de Tev Dem (Tevgera Civaka Demokratîk, “Movimiento por una Sociedad Democrática”), organismo coordinador de los cantones liberados en Rojava. En él, participa como vocero del movimiento en Suruç, en la frontera con Siria, justo al norte de Kobane. Nos reunimos el día 23 de Mayo a primera hora con él, para aprender de la experiencia de Rojava. Mientras se toma un café y fuma un cigarrillo tras otro, compartimos un simit, el infaltable pan de sésamo que se come al desayuno en Turquía y Kurdistán. Nos comenta que la experiencia revolucionaria popular que se viene desarrollando en esa región, comenzó hace mucho tiempo y es indisociable de la lucha de los kurdos en Bakur, es decir, en el norte de Kurdistán, región bajo el Estado turco.

“Rojava es el resultado del movimiento creado en 30 años de lucha, la cual fue iniciada por el PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê, “Partido de los Trabajadores del Kurdistán”). Cuando ellos comenzaron su lucha, su primera oposición vino desde Alemania y desde la OTAN. Eran una organización marxista-leninista y se les demonizaba en el marco de la Guerra Fría. Tras la caída de la URSS hubo cambios en lo ideológico, que fueron forzados en última instancia por el arresto del líder del PKK, Abdullah Ocalan, a quien llamamos Apo. En prisión, se dedicó al estudio de los problemas del marxismo-leninismo. Otros en el movimiento hacían lo mismo, estudiando los problemas de construcción del socialismo en el marxismo clásico, y encontramos que en éste modelo no hay respuesta para dos problemas cruciales en la revolución: el Estado y el Poder.

Kobane en ruinas, luego de los combates contra el Estado Islámico.
Kobane en ruinas, luego de los combates contra el Estado Islámico.

Descubrimos que el Estado no es una solución sino que una trampa para el proceso de cambio, pues con la imposición de sus jerarquías, con su verticalismo, la burocracia que controla el Estado termina convirtiéndose en una nueva clase dominante. Nuestra solución a este problema ha sido desarrollar el Confederalismo Democrático y cuestionar la naturaleza del actual Estado-nación, con sus leyes únicas, su identidad exclusiva, su bandera y su lengua.”

Cuando le pregunto su opinión sobre el surgimiento de los Estados plurinacionales en Latinoamérica, como los de Bolivia o Ecuador, y les pregunto qué opinión tienen de esos modelos que, siendo Estados, ya no se definen como Estado-nación y si conocen estas experiencias y si las han discutido, me responde afirmativamente con la cabeza, antes de proceder.

“Se sabe que en América Latina existen importantes esfuerzos del pueblo para construir democracia desde la base, pero la noción de Estado es un problema muy grande. El problema real es que el Estado y la democracia son dos conceptos incompatibles. Incluso, puedes tener un Estado democrático, al menos formalmente, y eso es radicalmente diferente a nuestra propuesta del Confederalismo Democrático. Esto se puede apreciar en el trabajo que hemos hecho que nace desde la misma base social. Kobane fue dividida en 13 cantones, cada cual con su consejo. Funcionan desde abajo, como comunas, todas con comisiones de mujer, de economía, de ecología, las que sean necesarias para la comunidad. Tenemos co-presidencia a todos los niveles de representatividad…no hay democracia de Estado que funcione de esta manera, o de una manera tan democrática y participativa.”

Le pregunto si han tenido influencias ideológicas aparte de la propia experiencia acumulada por los kurdos en su lucha revolucionaria de décadas, pues muchas de las cosas que está diciendo recuerdan a las posiciones asumidas por los socialistas libertarios, por el feminismo radical, así como por los anarquistas, que también se inspiraron, a lo largo de más de un siglo de luchas, en las experiencias desarrolladas por el propio pueblo que, en momento revolucionarios, construye y organiza su propio poder desde la base.

 José Antonio junto a Seg, en la tumba de su hijo Ferman, caído luchando contra el Estado Islámico.
José Antonio junto a Seg, en la tumba de su hijo Ferman, caído luchando contra el Estado Islámico.

“Murray Bookchin, un ecologista social de inspiración anarquista, mantuvo una relación intelectual con Ocalan, principalmente cuando fue arrestado. Ha habido influencia de las ideas desarrolladas por el movimiento ecologista, por el feminismo y desde luego, por el anarquismo, que ha sido influyente en muchos de estos movimientos sociales. El movimiento llegó a estas posiciones, sobre todo, por su propia crítica a la experiencia histórica del marxismo-leninismo. Pero también hemos tenido una visión más amplia por nuestra propia experiencia, por ejemplo, frente a la cuestión religiosa. La sociedad puede tener su propia visión de la religiosidad, y nosotros creemos que se deben respetar los valores y la cultura de los pueblos cuando estos no justifican la opresión. Es que la humanidad ha sido moldeada por estos valores en miles de años de desarrollo social y cultural…pero el problema con la religión comenzó cuando el Estado y el Poder se apropian de ella para moldear a la sociedad en función de proyectos opresivos. Esto es igual para un islamista ‘moderado’ como el primer ministro turco, Erdogan, así como con Daesh, el Estado Islámico”.

En este punto, interviene Seg, un imam, líder religioso musulmán, quien participa entusiastamente de la revolución en Kobane, mientras lidera las celebraciones religiosas locales y en los congresos políticos. Recientemente, participó en Amed (Diyarbakır), en la región de Bakur, en un congreso por un “Islam Democrático”.

“El Islam es una religión de tolerancia y de paz, que siempre ha tenido en su corazón la igualdad y la vida en la comunidad. Es una religión que nos ayuda a acercarnos a Dios, no es un instrumento para ejercitar el Poder y no debemos permitir que lo quieran convertir en eso. El Estado Islámico tiene una aproximación errónea al Islam, ellos tratan mal fundamentalmente a otros musulmanes, así como también a personas de otra fe. Ellos no son el Islam, son contrarios a su espíritu. Nosotros luchamos con ellos no por cuestiones de carácter teológico que son irrelevantes en este caso, nosotros luchamos contra ellos por su agenda política reaccionaria, anti-democrática, ultra-conservadora. Ellos creen que son Dios sobre la tierra, y no lo son.”

Al preguntarle sobre sus relaciones con personas de otra religiosidad en el movimiento kurdo, él me plantea sin ambigüedades que todos son bienvenidos a su revolución.

“Entre los kurdos que participan en el Tev Dem, hay personas de todas las religiones, defendemos la libertad de culto y todas las religiones tiene representación en nuestra organización. Y esta es una de las diferencias más importantes entre la democracia representativa, la democracia de Estado, y nuestra democracia participativa, de pueblos sin Estado: en Kobane hay apenas cinco familias cristianas. Si hubiera democracia representativa, ellos perderían todas las elecciones y serían suprimidos. Nosotros defendemos su derecho a existir, y les damos una representación, una voz, en nuestros consejos, porque su existencia nos enriquece a todos.”

[Publicado en la edición N°29 de Solidaridad.]

124 Comments

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