“La empresa discrimina a las mujeres en el ingreso, la cultura te enfrenta a tus compañeros y el usuario se siente con el derecho de agredirte”

por Solidaridad

Daniela Pérez dirige uno de los sindicatos estratégicos de la Región Metropolitana: conductores y conductoras responsables del transporte de más de 2 millones personas diariamente. Hoy enfrenta una doble lucha; terminar con las malas condiciones laborales a consecuencia del Transantiago y defender los derechos de las mujeres de Metro.

La transformación del transporte público sacudió a la población capitalina el año 2007. Con la llegada del Transantiago, Metro se convirtió en la columna vertebral del sistema de transporte público, sus servicios aumentaron drásticamente para dar cabida a más de 2.200.000 de pasajeros diarios, comenzando así la creciente externalización de servicios.

Esta transformación trajo como consecuencia malas condiciones laborales, extensas jornadas de trabajo y una escalada creciente de violencia por parte de los usuarios. Para resolver la crisis, los sindicatos 3 y 4 de Metro, iniciaron un proceso de fusión para unificar a conductores contratados y externos. Ambos sindicatos cumplían funciones similares y sólo presentaban diferencias en los beneficios que la empresa les entregaba, situación que generaba división y debilitaba la capacidad de negociación.

Daniela Pérez, participó activamente de este proceso, convirtiéndose en presidenta del naciente Sindicato Unificado de Trabajadores, Operaciones y Servicios de Metro S.A. el año 2014.

La incorporación progresiva de las mujeres al mercado del trabajo está marcada por múltiples discriminaciones e injusticias ¿Cuál fueron los primeros desafíos que debiste enfrentar?

La primera pelea que dimos fue alcanzar un sueldo único para las y los conductores, que si bien no se logró, nos permitió abrir una puerta para nuevas batallas, muchas de ellas imposibles de no haber existido una mujer en la negociación. Por ejemplo, logramos que todas las mujeres que fueron madres en su período de trabajo obtuvieran un bono de productividad seguro. Pero aún sigue siendo insuficiente, ya que en Metro no hay una intención real de ayudar a la mujer trabajadora. Tenemos turnos que se inician muy temprano, cerca de las 4 de la madrugada y que no ofrece alternativas para las conductoras que son madres.

Esto refleja una desigual distribución del trabajo doméstico en las familias chilenas ¿Cómo resuelven esta problemática las conductoras de Metro?

Cuando son madres y deben reincorporarse después del post natal, están obligadas a conseguir alguien que les ayude en la crianza en condiciones muy difíciles, incluso algunas compañeras han tenido que trasladarse a vivir con algún familiar, debido a que la crianza sigue siendo responsabilidad exclusiva de la mujer. Además, existen experiencias de discriminación hacia las conductoras que hacen valer su Permiso de Alimentación, ya que hay compañeros que reclaman por sus horarios reducidos y, además, la empresa pone trabas a sus licencias médicas por enfermedades de sus hijos.

Protesta Metro Dani1-7035

En este sentido, las prácticas cotidianas que dominan en el mundo sindical suelen ser excluyentes de las mujeres, sus intereses y perspectivas ¿Cómo han enfrentado esta situación?

Históricamente las demandas de las mujeres trabajadoras han sido dejadas de lado. Yo no tengo hijos, pero si viene una colega con algún problema relacionado a su maternidad, me muevo por todos lados para lograr el beneficio correspondiente, porque considero que las mujeres hemos aprendido a ser tremendamente solidarias. El escenario es difícil y quedan muchas tareas por realizar, ya que la empresa discrimina a las mujeres en el ingreso, la cultura te enfrenta a tus compañeros de trabajo y el usuario se siente con derecho a agredirte

¿Cuál es la proporción entre mujeres y hombres al interior de Metro?

Recién en la década de los noventa se permitió el ingreso de conductoras a Metro, ellas sufrieron las primeras discriminaciones, tan absurdas como exigirles medir al menos un metro sesenta de estatura, requisito que no corría para los hombres. A partir del año 2010 la empresa cambió las exigencias, solicitando carreras predominantemente vinculadas a los hombres como mecánica automotriz y electromecánica, esto representa el primer filtro para impedir el ingreso de mujeres. Hoy solo el 20% de los conductores son mujeres.

De acuerdo a diversos estudios, los sectores como minería, construcción y transporte poseen un porcentaje de mujeres afiliadas a organizaciones sindicales muy inferior en comparación al promedio nacional, además de que en todos los puestos directivos existe una mayor proporción de hombres que de mujeres. Al parecer una realidad distinta en tu sindicato…

Hoy el 100% de las mujeres conductoras está sindicalizada y su participación en puestos de responsabilidad es importante. Como presidenta, jamás he sentido discriminación por parte de mi equipo de trabajo, ni por la empresa u otros sindicatos de Metro. No me he sentido discriminada, pero sí comprendo que la situación generalizada hacia la mujer es más difícil. También he tenido que lidiar con la cultura machista que existe en ambientes laborales predominantemente masculinos, como el humor y el vocabulario, pero reconozco el esfuerzo de mis compañeros por cambiar esta situación.

¿Cuáles son los desafíos que asumirá el sindicato en defensa de los derechos de las mujeres de Metro?

Es urgente instalar una política de cuidado para las mujeres trabajadoras en Metro. Por ejemplo, no hay estudios sobre los efectos de la vibración de los carros durante el embarazo, pero eso no significa que no existan consecuencias, se han presentado situaciones complejas entre algunas compañeras. Más grave aún, resultan los numerosos casos de conductoras manoseadas, agredidas y escupidas por usuarios. El año 2014, en la Estación República, un hombre subió hasta la cabina de una conductora y la amenazó con un arma. Como no existía un sistema de seguridad o botón de pánico, la conductora activó un micrófono abierto que permitió alertar a la seguridad. Después de 20 minutos recién pudieron rescatarla. Por eso es fundamental que las propias colegas entiendan que una mujer puede hacer bien su trabajo como dirigente, y la importancia que tiene esta labor para instalar nuestras demandas y denunciar las problemáticas que nos aquejan.

 

[Publicado en la edición N°29 de Solidaridad]

 

 

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