Violencia obstétrica: la difícil tarea de parir

por Marina Lanalhue

Podríamos resumir la historia de la mujer, como la historia de un territorio eternamente explotado y dominado por la sociedad patriarcal. La medicina no está ajena a estas prácticas y oculta un trato deshumanizador que a veces las mismas mujeres desconocen o aceptan. 

 

La dominación de la mujer involucra y afecta a toda la sociedad. Es la mitad de la humanidad que vive bajo opresión, y su tolerancia abre camino para nuevas formas de dominación. Pero este sometimiento ha encontrado diversas formas, alcanzando incluso a una práctica tan natural como dar vida.

Se estima que en Chile existen 250 mil partos por año, y al menos el 92% ha sido víctima de violencia obstétrica. Con esto nos referimos a los abusos de poder que existen dentro la institución de la medicina hacia las mujeres durante su tiempo de embarazo o al momento del parto. Un reflejo de la sociedad machista que se apropia de su cuerpo como un territorio colonizado, sometido y explotado.

Esta se puede dividir en dos planos: el psicológico y el físico, pero entendemos que no es lo uno sin lo otro. En el plano físico identificamos una cesárea sin justificación médica, el tacto realizado por más de una persona, la episiotomía de rutina, el uso de fórceps sin necesidad vital o consentimiento y el raspaje de útero sin anestesia. Desde lo psicológico, se identifica como violencia obstétrica el uso de lenguaje inapropiado, burlas sobre el estado o cuerpo de la mujer y su hijo, críticas por manifestar emociones como alegría o dolor y, sobre todo, la imposibilidad de plantear temores e inquietudes durante el proceso de embarazo y parto.

Venezuela fue el primer país del mundo en legislar este tipo de violencia el año 2007, a través de la “Ley orgánica sobre el derecho de las mujeres a una vida libre de violencia”. Allí define la violencia obstétrica como “la apropiación del cuerpo y procesos reproductivos de las mujeres por prestadores de salud. El trato jerárquico deshumanizador, el abuso de medicalización y la patologización del proceso natural de gestar y parir”. La ley establece sanciones administrativas a quienes la ejerzan, y otros países como Argentina y México han comenzado a trabajar en la materia.

Cesárea innecesaria

Según la OMS, Chile ocupa el cuarto lugar a nivel mundial en el uso de cesáreas, siendo el 66% realizada en el sistema privado y un 37,4%, en el sistema público. Es cierto que esta intervención ha salvado miles de vidas y sería ridículo decir que es rechazada de plano, el problema radica en el uso indiscriminado de este recurso que sirve principalmente para ordenar las agendas de los profesionales médicos. “Al no haberse desencadenado el parto las hormonas tampoco han hecho su trabajo, no hay transición, de estar embarazada se pasa a estar en una sala de reanimación con el estómago cosido (…) Algunas madres atraviesan un verdadero shock psíquico en los días siguientes a la intervención. Externamente aparentan normalidad, se ocupan de su hijo y reciben a las visitas con naturalidad. Sin embargo, la procesión suele ir por dentro y a veces les cuesta creer que el embarazo ha terminado ya que no ha habido un parto”, señala Ibone Olza, psiquiatra perinatal e investigadora española especialista en neurobiología.

El desnaturalizado proceso de parto es una manera de tratarnos y de controlar nuestra vida y sexualidad, es otra forma de dominación, disfrazada, casi invisible para sus propias víctimas ya que se acepta este trato por considerarse ajena e ignorante del propio cuerpo.

Cuando tienes trece años y vas a la matrona y sientes su desprecio, o cuando te preguntan por tu vida sexual y te juzgan por la cantidad de parejas o edad de inicio. Una arista más de la violencia que vivimos día a día como mujeres dentro de una sociedad que emite el discurso de “igualdad de género” o “emancipación de la mujer”, creyendo que esto solo significa abandonar la esclavitud en las tareas domésticas y salir a ponerse el collar de la esclavitud del salario. La desnaturalización del proceso reproductivo esconde soterradas formas de opresión, disfrazadas de un proceso médico y científico común, que sostiene una fuerte una ideología patriarcal, y que solo las mujeres podrán derribar

[Publicado en la edición N°28 de Solidaridad]

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