Vilma Llalliré: “Espero que los que vengan puedan gozar de esta lucha que se está dando. Buscar la igualdad, una buena remuneración, un  buen trato”

 

Por La Alzada, Acción Feminista Libertaria
Periódico Solidaridad

Presentamos la entrevista realizada a la integrante del Sindicato Nacional Interempresas de Trabajadoras Inmigrantes de Casa Particular (Sinaincap). Una profesora que hace siete años dejó Perú y encontró en el sindicalismo una oportunidad para cambiar su destino.

Vilma Llalliré tiene 41 años, nació en Guancayo pero gran parte de su vida la pasó en Lima. Allí dejó una familia y un hijo de 14 años, para forjar en Chile un nuevo destino. ¿Qué te impulsó a tomar esta decisión?

Fue mi hijo, yo no quería que pasara por lo que viví, entonces de la noche a la mañana decidí venir a Chile el año 2008. Llegué a Santiago sin conocer a nadie, era todo distinto pero ya no podía retroceder. Sólo tenía un contacto de una persona que me fue a buscar a Estación Central y me dio alojamiento por unos días, pero yo necesitaba urgente encontrar un trabajo. Al cuarto día llegué a una casa en Pirque, pero fue una mala experiencia, me sentí triste e inmediatamente me desilusioné, y sentí ganas de volver a Perú, así que fui a sacar pasajes y me dijeron que salía al día siguiente, pero justo me llamaron a una entrevista para trabajar en una casa en Las Condes, y de un segundo a otro mi vida dio un giro.

El año 2013 se aprobó el Proyecto de Ley sobre Migración y Extranjería para modificar la ley vigente desde 1975 que está enfocada fundamentalmente en la defensa y seguridad del país, por otra que facilitara la mano de obra. ¿Cómo opera la burocracia chilena para los/las inmigrantes?

Una vez contratada pude quedarme hasta que salió el permiso para obtener la visa sujeta a contrato. Allí me informaron que debía estar “tres años con el mismo empleador para la definitiva”. No entendía, si me trataban mal me tenía que aguantar, sino tenía que volver a empezar de cero. Sin embargo, como yo soy profesional, licenciada en educación, me dijeron que podía optar a la visa temporaria, tenía que traer todos mis papeles de Perú legalizados por extranjería y revalidarlos en Chile. El transcurso de un año pude sacar la visa definitiva, la de residencia.

 

Una de las grandes reformas fue la creación de un nuevo estatus migratorio temporal, que legaliza una suerte de importación temporal de mano de obra, de bajo costo y fácil devolución. No solo consagra una visión mercantil de un fenómeno social, sino también limita las posibilidades de mejorar las condiciones laborales. ¿Has pensando en la posibilidad de buscar otra alternativa al trabajo en casas particulares y dedicarte a tu profesión?

 

Una vez le comenté a la empleadora que quería trabajar en lo que estudié porque ya tenía mi título revalidado, y me llevó con la directora de un colegio. El trabajo era de lunes a viernes de 7:30 a 15:00 y me ofrecieron 300 mil pesos, pero por mi situación de extranjera mi prioridad era juntar dinero para pagar los estudios de mi hijo, no me convenía, porque trabajando puertas adentro tengo pieza y comida. Busqué otras opciones en colegios, pero económicamente no me favorecía. Así que dejé mi carrera ahí. También pensé en estudiar un curso de actualización docente en la Universidad de Chile, pero me salía un millón de pesos por los seis meses que duraba, y tampoco pude. Pero hoy mi hijo terminó su carrera, es ingeniero en redes, y ahora sí puedo comenzar pensar en mí, puedo pensar en ese gusto de volver a estudiar o trabajar en un colegio.

Vilma confiesa que su experiencia en Chile ha sido buena, pero sabe que no es la regla. Muchas de sus compañeras han sido víctimas de maltrato y discriminación, y muchas veces esperan de ellas una actitud sumisa. ¿Cuál es el escenario que enfrenta hoy una mujer migrante que viene a trabajar a Chile?

Ahora que cambió la Ley sobre Extranjería nos ha cambiado la cara, porque tenemos la opción de la Visa Temporaria, que nos permite elegir el trabajo, pues si estamos cómodos, bienvenido sea, pero si no lo estamos, nos podemos retirar y dar un paso al costado. Anteriormente no era así, teníamos que aguantar a los empleadores que nos podían maltratar de varias formas. Hay mucho maltrato y antes nos teníamos que aguantar cerrando los ojos, llorando en las piezas, soportar por la visa.

IMG_2965Sinaincap está compuesto por mujeres de distintas nacionalidades que en su mayoría trabajan puertas adentro, muchas de ellas son madres solteras que salen de sus países de origen en busca de un mejor destino para sus hijos.  En este contexto, ¿qué significa para ti el Sindicato?

Para mi es una fortaleza. Llegar, compartir, sentir que somos una familia. Personalmente lo siento como una segunda casa, acá me siento confortada, siento que nos quieren, que nos apoyan, nos brindan orientación. No hay discriminación, las puertas están abiertas para todas las asesoras del hogar, de cualquier nacionalidad.

El trabajo sindical ha permitido abrir nuevos caminos a través del trabajo mancomunado. ¿Cuáles son sus principales demandas?

Nos interesa mejorar nuestras condiciones, en especial para las que trabajamos puertas adentro, que vean que también somos seres humanos, que también sentimos y que tenemos las mismas necesidades que ellos, también nos cansamos, nos enfermamos, así que necesitamos momentos de reposo. Queremos leyes que mejoren nuestras condiciones y que nos paguen lo que corresponde, porque muchas veces en los días libres nos piden hacer cosas y las empleadoras abusan de eso, porque nos ven en los hogares y nos dicen “un favorcito, me puedes ayudar”, y ese favor a la otra semana es una obligación. Tenemos derechos a descansar y queremos remuneraciones justas. Porque las soluciones no se darán de la noche a la mañana, será poco a poco, pues todo proceso y todo cambio requieren tiempo, y lo que creo es que sí lo lograremos, y espero que los que vengan puedan gozar de esta lucha que se está dando. Buscar la igualdad, una buena remuneración, un  buen trato. Espero y tengo fe que sí se va a lograr.

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