La cultura en disputa: conversación con Gloria Laso

por Teresa Acosta

Gloria Laso es una actriz que ha participado en películas emblemáticas de distintos momentos de Chile como Los trasplantados (1975), La frontera (1991) ganadora del Oso de Plata en Berlín, B-Happy (2003), y en películas internacionales como la histórica película de Costa Gavras Estado de sitio (1972). Además, fue asistente en el montaje y difusión de La batalla de Chile de Patricio Guzmán, y co-escribió La rosa de los vientos (1982) junto al dramaturgo Jorge Díaz, que se filmó en Venezuela y Cuba. Militante de izquierda, fue secuestrada por la DINA en 1974, pasando por el centro de tortura clandestino José Domingo Cañas. De regreso al país continuó vinculada al cine comprometido, siendo su último trabajo un documental sobre Sergio Buschmann: Buschamnn, comunista con el favor de dios (2014).

Hace un par de años vemos con más fuerza la emergencia del cine independiente, desde festivales de cine más politizados -como FECISO- y diversas propuestas de cine y documentales autogestionados. El cine aparece como un territorio o escenario donde circulan discursos y producciones culturales que disputan la hegemonía cultural de los grandes medios de comunicación y el cine ¿Cuál es tu mirada sobre este potencial político-cultural detrás de las cámaras independientes?

Yo creo que a partir del año 90 donde se da por terminada la Dictadura y se inicia la “Democracia protegida”, comienzan a nacer nuevas generaciones que ya no cargan como nosotros con el peso de muerte y dolor que marcó nuestra juventud y parte de la vida. Estos jóvenes sin miedo en el aire, ni en la sociedad, se atreven, osan, reintentan tanto en el cine como en diversos frentes de la sociedad, particularmente en lo que les atañe directamente; la mala educación, que rige en el país desde la llegada del Dictador y que tras su partida se mantiene intacta, como gran parte de las estructuras por él diseñadas y que extienden duras y rígidas raíces que traspasan tranquilamente este “nuevo tiempo”. Es contra esa herencia a la que los nuevos chilenos comienzan a rebelarse. Las marchas estudiantiles ya sin miedo, pues la sociedad no respira como antaño, permite que la creatividad y nuevos aires comiencen a soplar.

Es en este contexto en el que comienzan a surgir cineastas y documentalistas que con esfuerzo y gracias al tesón, y a los escasos apoyos de fondos estatales logran crear y mantener en el tiempo un vigoroso movimiento que cada día aumenta en cantidad y calidad en sus trabajos. Vemos films y documentales que abarcan todos los aspectos y ópticas sociales. Denuncia, rebeldía, expresión y hasta entretención simplemente.

Se multiplican las escuelas de cine, talleres, y ya no es una “excentricidad” ser cineasta, sino una profesión más.
Por su parte, los antiguos y escasos cineastas de antaño, se entrecruzan, entretejen y entregan su experiencia y conocimiento a estos nuevos cineastas, tanto en trabajos como enseñando en universidades.

Este movimiento que cada día toma más cuerpo, corre paralelo a la televisión que inversamente entrega cada día una oferta más pobre, copiándose unos a otros y consiguiendo banalizar cada día más la oferta. Mi esperanza es que siendo este un país tan pequeño y que por el fracaso de estos contenidos, y por encontrarse la televisión en franca crisis, ya muchas personas de cine, están insertándose en la TV y disputando espacio a ingenieros comerciales y periodistas que hasta el momento han dirigido sus rumbos.

Creo que al suceder esto podría potenciarse el cine tanto en cuotas de pantalla, como en coproducciones y proyectos conjuntos, lo que permitiría aumentar y optimizar la oferta y enfocarse hacia el espectador medio, ya deformado en su consumo de muchos años de chatarra audiovisual y que finalmente es el más perjudicado. Pues si solo eso está a su alcance y el cine pertenece a una elite intelectual, es la sociedad entera la que se empobrece (como hoy) o en un futuro promisorio, podría enriquecerse y subir su nivel en conjunto, creando una suerte de vaso comunicante que a todos aporte.

En este sentido, y a 25 años de la vuelta de esta democracia postdictatorial, nos gustaría que nos hablaras del sentido que tuvo y tiene para ti la realización de tu documental sobre Sergio Buschmann -actor y ex miembro del Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez (FPMR), recientemente fallecido-, Buschmann, Comunista con el favor de dios, donde aparece la voz de rebeldía de una persona que se hizo parte del proyecto transformador de una época, de una generación de luchadoras y luchadores sociales.

Gloria Laso junto al protagonista de su último documental

Gloria Laso junto al protagonista de su último documental

Mi intención de hacer un documental sobre Buschmann, un combatiente olvidado, como tantos, fue en primer lugar dejar un testimonio de la verdad, para las nuevas generaciones o para aquellas que, como señale anteriormente, si bien nacieron sin el miedo en los huesos que sus padres tuvieron, fueron en cambio víctimas del estudiado manto de silencio que cubrió muchos hechos y conductas heroicas de tantos compatriotas. Mostrar, conmover y hacer reflexionar a estos nuevos muchachos, muchos de los cuales repiten ignorantes, apelativos y juicios que les fueron inculcados.

Sergio Buschmann representa a cientos y miles de compatriotas que fueron capaces de dar su vida y entregar sus sueños, dejar atrás familia, hijos y proyectos personales en la lucha contra la Dictadura y que sin testimonios como este modesto trabajo que recoge una historia en primera persona (y por tanto irrefutable) en pocos años mas estaría definitivamente sepultado en el recuerdo de Chile.

Intenté también mostrar a un ser humano y borrar con su propio relato e imagen la absurda caricatura del “terrorista”, apelativo maníqueo y despectivo, con que los partidarios de Pinochet se permitieron descalificar y caricaturizar a valientes chilenos, que no hicieron más que alzarse contra un tirano que asesinó cruel y brutalmente a miles de personas indefensas. Derecho por lo demás consignado desde el alba de los tiempos en todo documento, incluida “La Biblia”.

Un grano de arena en la historia escrita por los vencedores, un modesto homenaje a la consecuencia de un actor, como yo, y finalmente un saludo a la dignidad humana.
[Publicado en la edición N°27 de Solidaridad]

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