Diagnóstico y desafíos para el actual momento político: ¡No más abortos clandestinos!

acción violetaLa lucha por la despenalización del aborto en nuestro país tiene una larga historia, ha sido impulsada por diversas organizaciones feministas, políticas y sociales con el fin de reivindicar un derecho fundamental para las mujeres. Esta lucha se ha visto históricamente empañada por la iglesia católica y grupos religiosos fundamentalistas, sectores sociales que además tienen una gran influencia sobre el Estado, y a su disposición cuentan con poderosos medios de comunicación; donde promueven sus valores y ética  frente a esa “vida” que está por nacer, cercenando el derecho a decidir de cada mujer.

La penalización del aborto terapéutico  fue impulsado por la derecha fascista durante la dictadura de Pinochet en 1989. Chile se convirtió así en uno de los pocos países que penalizó el aborto ante cualquier circunstancia, quedando las mujeres condenadas a practicarlo en forma clandestina y en precarias condiciones. Recientemente, el gobierno de Bachelet envió un proyecto de ley que despenaliza el aborto bajo tres causales: riesgo vital de la madre, inviabilidad fetal y violación, sin embrago, la iniciativa no muestra un avance categórico en la autonomía de las mujeres, ya que aún restringe nuestra libertad de decidir sobre nuestros cuerpos y vidas. Aún más, las prácticas de aborto en Chile mayoritariamente se deben a razones que sobrepasan lo “terapéutico”, por lo que de ser aprobada la propuesta, la inmensa mayoría de los abortos seguirán ocurriendo en las mismas condiciones precarias y clandestinas.

accion violeta 2Si bien el Estado debe despenalizar el aborto para acabar con la criminalización de las mujeres, también debe garantizarlo, instaurándolo como un derecho, el cual debe ser realizado en condiciones dignas, de manera segura, con un acceso universal y gratuito. El aborto es una problemática que afecta principalmente a las mujeres que pertenecen a los sectores más pobres de la sociedad, son ellas las que deben acudir a realizarse abortos de forma clandestina poniendo en riesgo sus vidas, mientras existe otro sector que puede pagar y realizarlo de forma privada, sin correr mayores riesgos.  La actual situación del aborto en nuestro país es una clara expresión de la violencia patriarcal que sufrimos todas las mujeres, entendiéndolo como una contradicción entre nuestra soberanía y el rol reproductivo que nos han impuesto, pero que además, tiene una fuerte connotación de clase, al afectar de distinta manera según las posibilidades materiales de cada mujer. Aún más, es necesario entender la problemática de manera amplia en torno a nuestros derechos sexuales y reproductivos: la educación, el goce pleno e irrestricto de nuestras sexualidades, la anticoncepción diversa y universalmente garantizada, y el aborto libre, seguro y gratuito son derechos que no pueden analizarse por separado y que deben ser garantizados en su totalidad.

El debate sobre el aborto está más vigente que nunca, y sin embargo, hacción violeta 3a sido cooptado por los partidos políticos tradicionales donde sus miembros, en su mayoría hombres, y con la ayuda de los medios de comunicación, agotando la discusión en torno a las tres causales antes mecionadas. No podemos permitir que estos sectores, cuya máscara progresista muchas veces engaña, nos dejen fuera de la discusión que hoy está vigente gracias a la lucha histórica que el movimiento feminista, en su amplitud y diversidad, ha dado durante años. El actual momento político no permite medios tintes. Ceder hoy, y no manifestarnos con la claridad y potencia que el tema requiere, es negar nuestra historia, negar la lucha de cientos de compañeras que nos abrieron paso para que hoy nuestro derecho a decidir sea puesto en el debate y reconocido como tal. La movilización el próximo 6 de marzo, conmemorando el Día de la Mujer, abrió una posibilidad única y un deber ineludible, para que como feministas, iniciemos el año con un hito político que nos posicione realmente como protagonistas de la lucha por nuestros derechos.

por Mónica Sánchez Bravo, militante de Acción Violeta

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