Proyecciones para un nuevo año de lucha feminista

Las políticas de los últimos veinte años, implementadas tanto por los gobiernos de la Concertación como por la Nueva Mayoría, se han mostrado incapaces de hacer frente a la gran violencia patriarcal que vive nuestro país. El carácter unilateral, circunstancial y no vinculante de dichas políticas ha limitado su potencialidad para promover igualdad de género. Hoy la agenda de gobierno de Michelle Bachelet se debate entre una política asistencialista, enfocada principalmente en las mujeres en tanto madres y cuidadoras, y la promesa de grandes reformas que sacarían al país de su conservadurismo moral, pero que finalmente quedan en manos de los mismos de siempre. Así, mientras el bloque en el poder se llena la boca hablando de participación y democracia, vemos como son los grupos de interés quienes realmente dictan el funcionamiento de estas políticas, imponiendo interminables dificultades de tipo político, social, organizativo y operativo que, con frecuencia, provocan su desvanecimiento, en pos del conservadurismo misógino y la miseria que los caracteriza.

La participación activa de las mujeres en el mercado laboral formal ha sido un elemento clave para el crecimiento económico. Por una parte, la fuerza laboral femenina ha crecido considerablemente en comparación con la masculina, además la tasa de participación femenina ha mostrado una sostenida tendencia ascendente. No obstante, su participación está fuertemente marcada por su área de residencia y nivel de capacitación: las mujeres de sectores rurales son las que menos registran variación en su tasa de participación y se encuentran en clara situación de desventaja respecto al acceso de la tierra y la tecnología para su explotación (Correa, M., y Monckeberg, M. en Mujeres Chilenas. Estadísticas para el Nuevo Siglo). No obstante, mayores niveles de capacitación no aseguran una menor brecha salarial, ya que como demuestra la encuesta CASEN del 2013 ésta ha aumentada en un 25% en comparación al año 2015, y se incrementa en la medida en que aumentan los años de estudio. Se pone el foco, por tanto, en las mujeres como población beneficiaria (como por ejemplo el programa de “Mujer Trabajadora y Jefa de Hogar” del SERNAM) y no como sujetos activos, sobrecargándolas laboralmente en tanto que agentes clave para el crecimiento económico al potenciar sus múltiples roles productivo, reproductivo y comunitario.

Por otra parte, a pesar de que las mujeres ocupan un lugar destacado en la agenda nacional, ocupando puestos relevantes en distintos sectores, cada día pesa más el argumento de “hasta donde quieren llegar”; como si nos debiésemos conformar con que una mujer, independiente de su posición partidaria y agenda valórica, representará a todas las mujeres. Esto trae como consecuencia que las organizaciones de mujeres y feministas no aparecen como actores relevantes y son excluidas del debate nacional, incluso en materias como el aborto o el femicidio. Esta ausencia se produce a la par que se reconoce a las organizaciones empresariales como agentes con voz autorizada para dirigir la agenda nacional. Dado que la igualdad de género no se considera como un requisito a incluir en la acción específica de las empresas, esta situación puede traer consigo un mayor alejamiento entre el discurso pro igualdad de género del gobierno y la práctica real.

Un ejemplo de esto es el presupuesto dirigido a cuestiones de género, como los precarios fondos dirigidos a los programas de salud sexual y reproductiva, la inexistencia de un programa de educación sexual y la completa desregularización en el acceso a métodos de anticoncepción, que obligan a mujeres y no heterosexuales a la voluntad de médicos pechoños, especialmente en sectores vulnerables que han cedido el control de los centros de atención primaria a instituciones católicas como la Pontificia Universidad Católica y la Universidad de los Andes, las mismas, que se permiten anunciar que no están dispuestas a cumplir con ley, si es que se despenaliza el aborto, porque son más importante sus berrinches moralistas que la vida de las mujeres.

El aborto amenaza con seguir siendo el no-derecho, siempre sometido a los intereses y a la agenda de los diferentes partidos políticos. Es vergonzoso constatar cómo aún después de todas las movilizaciones, el poder de la Iglesia y los sectores ultraconservadores pesan más que los acuerdos internacionales, la separación Iglesia/Estado y las situación sanitaria de miles de mujeres que mueren cada año. Sin embargo, las feministas no nos rendimos tan fácilmente y continuaremos nuestra lucha hasta que el aborto libre y gratuito sea un derecho garantizado, hasta que podamos vivir nuestra sexualidad libre y plenamente sin miedo a ser juzgadas si es que “tomamos un traguito de más”, si nuestra apariencia e identidad sexual no es del gusto de la masculinidad hegemónica, o si no nos consagramos a la maternidad. Nuestra lucha es solidaria, porque si nos tocan a una (a unx, a uno, a quien sea) nos tocan a todas y nos descansaremos hasta ver libres a las 16 de El Salvador, hasta que no existan más niñas y jóvenes condenadas “a no descuidar sus labores de madre” (como ocurrió con la estudiante de Colegio Salesiano de 17 años fue formalizada por aborto frustrado), hasta que caminar con tranquilidad en las calles sea una realidad para todes, y seamos tratades con dignidad en nuestras casas, escuelas, trabajos , centros de salud y en todos lados.

Sabemos que puede resultar difícil leer una palabra escrita con género neutro, puede que nuestras demandas parezcan poco concretas para muchos, pero más difícil es ser uno o una no heterosexual que teme ser quemado con ácido en su propia población, una mujer que es asesinada por su pareja por que no tuvo la comida a tiempo, y que tu identidad no sea reconocida siendo objeto de abuso en cada aspecto de tu vida, desde la niñez hasta la muerte, en mucho casos prematura si caes en manos de un “profesional” sin escrúpulos.

El 2014 fue un año lleno de la lucha feminista, donde miles de mujeres y feministas ocupamos las calles para reclamar el derecho a decidir sobre nuestros propios cuerpos y vidas, pero no nos conformamos sólo con marchar, sino que ocupamos cada espacio para decir basta a la opresión machista, en asambleas estudiantiles, junta de vecinos y sindicatos, desempolvado pancartas y lemas para gritarlos con rabia, pero también con energía y determinación de quienes están hartas de la violencia y el olvido. Somos testigos de como el movimiento social se ha revitalizado y cada día son más las organizaciones que buscan construir una nueva sociedad, lamentablemente en muchos casos, reciclando viejos prejuicios sobre el feminismo y la lucha antipatriarcal. Incluso existen algunos autonombrados revolucionarios que consideran el feminismo como un proyecto obsoleto, reaccionario en algunos casos, o como el reverso de la opresión machista que enfrentamos. A esos supuestos compañeros, les recordamos que el feminismo no es uno solo, existen diferentes propuestas y formas de acción, pero como feministas compartimos la convicción de que el sistema capitalista heteropatriarcal no caerá sin lucha y organización y que nadie será libre hasta que todas y todos lo seamos.

Por La Alzada-Acción Feminista Libertaria

[Publicado en la edición n°27 de Solidaridad]

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