Sexualidad placentera y maternidad elegida ¡Yo elijo! Dónde, cómo y cuándo

Hace algunas semanas Bachelet envió el proyecto de ley sobre aborto terapéutico. La iniciativa causó diversas reacciones entre la derecha y miembros conservadores de la Nueva Mayoría. El ejemplo más triste fue el protagonizado por el diputado DC Pablo Lorenzini quien afirmó que algunas violaciones se producían porque las mujeres habían bebido unos “traguitos de más”, por su parte la Iglesia quiere impedir su aprobación a toda costa. Y como siempre poco se ha escuchado la voz de las mujeres. A continuación reproducimos una columna escrita por la Alzada publicado por Solidaridad el año 2013. El debate continúa y es pertinente recordar quienes han impulsado la batalla en defensa de los derechos de las mujeres.

Sexualidad placentera y maternidad elegida ¡Yo elijo! Dónde, cómo y cuándo

Chile es uno de los pocos países que criminaliza el aborto en todas las circunstancias. El aborto terapéutico se legalizó en 1932, sin embargo en 1989 se modificó el artículo 119 del Código Sanitario que lo prohibió en cualquier situación. El año 2012 el proyecto de ley que buscaba legalizar la interrupción del embarazo por riesgo de la vida de la madre, por inviabilidad fetal extrauterina y por violación fue rechazado por dos votos en la cámara alta. Hoy el debate se reabre a raíz de la coyuntura electoral y es tensionado por las noticias comentadas.

10525775_712965032104718_2755264579383978613_nSin embargo, la ilegalidad del aborto es violencia y discriminación del Estado hacia mujeres y niñas, no sólo en caso de violación o inviabilidad fetal, por lo que delimitar la discusión en el marco netamente “terapéutico” cierra el debate sobre causas sociales y otras condiciones que determinan que una mujer opte por el aborto. Ante esta dificultad, entonces podemos re conceptualizar lo terapéutico, pues si lo que busca la terapia es aliviar o sanar los padecimientos físicos y/o psicológicos de las mujeres, entonces es pertinente incluir todo embarazo que no forme parte de sus proyectos de vida. En Chile la capacidad de decisión de las mujeres sobre sus cuerpos y proyectos de vidas no sólo se ve truncada por el aparato jurídico estatal, sino también por la precariedad de la educación sexual, la falta de acceso a mecanismos anticonceptivos, un imaginario cultural que confunde “mujer con madre”, como si fuésemos incubadoras vivas al servicio de la sociedad, entre otras causas que no permiten a las mujeres vivir la sexualidad y el placer de una manera responsable y consciente.

El problema del embarazo adolescente o no deseado no debe centrar su atención en “aborto o no aborto” sino, como cualquier temática de salud, en la prevención, es decir en la búsqueda activa de la eliminación de los factores de riesgo. Por lo tanto, el acceso a educación sexual y reproductiva, a mecanismos anticonceptivos y  preservativos, son fundamentales, pues dentro de las consecuencias de una sexualidad irresponsable también se encuentran un gran número de infecciones de transmisión sexual. Sin embargo, la postura de los grupos conservadores “pro-vida” tampoco promueve la sexualidad responsable, jamás hemos visto alguna campaña en contra del aborto en la cual se entreguen condones y consejería sobre salud reproductiva.

El temor infundado por estos grupos bajo el argumento “como sociedad no estamos en condiciones para que podamos decidir libremente”, del aumento de abortos que se producirían a causa de la despenalización, no se condice con la evidencia, pues ésta demuestra que la condición legal del aborto no modifica la necesidad de las mujeres a acceder a él, sólo afecta dramáticamente el acceso a un procedimiento seguro, generando una clara distinción socioeconómica, entre quienes pueden pagar una clínica y quien no, como cualquier derecho que queda bajo los arbitrios del mercado, en este caso clandestino.

Por otra parte, si bien los avances en el uso de anticonceptivos han producido una disminución de los embarazos no deseados, no han eliminado el acceso a un aborto seguro de las necesidades sanitarias, pues se aproxima que unas 33 millones de usuarias de anticonceptivos padecen un embarazo accidental cada año. No se propone el aborto como mecanismo anticonceptivo por los riesgos que tiene cualquier procedimiento médico o quirúrgico para el organismo, sólo se debe considerar que un aborto inseguro es una causa importante de mortalidad. Alrededor de 47.000 muertes anuales relacionadas con el embarazo se producen por complicaciones de éstos, y puede prevenirse mediante educación sexual, planificación de la maternidad y acceso garantizado al aborto en todos los casos. El acceso universal que garantice salud a mujeres y niñas es una cuestión de derecho a la vida, ¿Qué medida puede ser más “pro-vida” que proteger la salud física y mental de más de la mitad de la población?

La legalidad del aborto es un tema de salud pública, por lo que una u otra visión moral frente a ésta debiésemos guardarla para nuestra propia decisión de parir o no a un hijo no planificado, en la cual se deberían conjugar todas las condiciones para que podamos sentirnos dueñas de nuestros cuerpos y nuestro futuro, de nuestro proyecto de vida que no es por consecuencia lógica la maternidad.

La legislación actual sobre el aborto en Chile es una evidencia clara de violencia estructural patriarcal y muchas veces pareciese ser obra de una mano invisible, pero no, es fruto de decisiones políticas y de personas que hoy se arrogan la potestad de decidir sobre nuestras vidas. Por otra parte la violencia física y psicológica a la que se somete a niñas y mujeres se reproduce de forma macabra en el seno de la clase trabajadora, por lo que nuestra práctica política no puede estar disociada de lo que se produce en la intimidad de nuestros hogares y organizaciones.

Si bien una ley que despenalice y garantice el aborto no nos resguardará de las conductas aberrantes que permite y propicia el patriarcado al igual el capitalismo -pues ninguna ley puede hacerlo- sólo la superación de estas estructuras de dominación que se expresan como dictadura estatal sobre nuestros cuerpos y vidas, sólo la construcción de una sociedad libre con pilares de solidaridad, cooperación y dignidad de mujeres y hombres de todas las edades. Sin embargo existen condiciones mínimas para avanzar contra la consolidación de la misoginia y es por esto que exigimos esas condiciones mínimas para decidir y no morir.

¡Educación sexual para decidir,

Anticonceptivos para prevenir,

Aborto legal para no morir!

La Alzada, Acción Feminista Libertaria

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