México: La noche eterna

Fotografía: Atoq Wallpa Sua. Flickr

“ Notros nacimos de la noche. En ella vivimos. Moriremos en ella. Pero la luz será mañana para los más, para todos aquellos que hoy lloran la noche, para quienes se niega el día, para quienes es regalo la muerte, para quienes está prohibida la vida. Para todos la luz. Para todos todo. Para nosotros el dolor y la angustia…”

Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional. Cuarta declaración de la Selva Lacandona. México, enero 1996

El hombre no tiene derecho a matar a su hermano, no es una excusa hacerlo en uniforme. Sólo añade la infamia de la servidumbre al crimen de asesinato.”

Percy B. Shelley

 

Hay un lugar en el mundo de dimensiones colosales. Su horizonte apenas alcanza a definir lo infinito. Hace mucho tiempo fue violentamente incorporado a la civilización occidental bajo una lógica de explotación y despojo. América se fundó como una periferia, y a veces como frontera límite de la modernidad capitalista, en ella se han encarnado sus peores contradicciones…

Los pequeños eventos de la historia van definiéndola en su dimensión más amplia: el de la larga duración. Cuando Cortez desembarcó en las costas de Veracruz definió el futuro de millones de seres humanos. Con él llegaba un proyecto civilizatorio con la capacidad técnica e ideológica para imponerse a sangre y fuego. Para muchos la larga noche había comenzado.

Fotografía Carlos Wagner.
Fotografía Carlos Wagner.

El despojo y la opresión configuraron la lógica de todas las instituciones y relaciones sociales del Nuevo Mundo. Los nuevos Estados y sus leyes se forjaron para salvaguardar los intereses y privilegios de una casta: la europea. Los vencidos fueron condenados a la servidumbre, sus costumbres y conocimientos despreciados y envilecidos. Sus territorios usurpados.

Sobrevivir la violencia salvaje que de manera sistemática se ha ejercido durante 5 siglos es una prueba admirable de tenacidad. En México, el proceso expansivo capitalista, a pesar de la violenta invasión europea ha tenido que aplicarse una verdadera agenda de terror y violencia implacable. La ultima versión tomo la forma de una ficticia Guerra contra las Drogas, que ha arrasado con los pueblos y facilitando la apropiación de sus tierras y recursos. Es una guerra vieja, desde la matanza de Cholula en 1518, hasta la desaparición forzada de 43 estudiantes en Guerrero en Septiembre del 2014, la lista es larga y escalofriante. Estar vivo en México es sin duda un acto de rebeldía.

La versión neoliberal del Capitalismo en crisis que vulnera la hegemonía de Estados Unidos se traduce en la necesidad de imponer su agenda económica a toda costa desatando, desde el 2006 cuando el gobierno de Calderón anunció un operativo contra los cárteles en el estado de Michoacán, una violencia descomunal auspiciada por los gobiernos de todas las tendencias políticas, pasando de una guerra de baja intensidad (que se había mantenido por años con el PRI), a una frontal. Este embate implacable ha dejado a la fecha cerca de 140 mil muertos y de acuerdo a cifras oficiales más de 26 mil desaparecidos. Aunque el país es virtualmente una fosa clandestina, lejos de ser combatidos, los cárteles se han fortalecido y diversificado: desde la trata de personas, el tráfico de órganos, venta de armas, talas clandestinas, secuestros, hasta la infiltración en los órganos de gobierno y las policías.

Frente a la omisión del gobierno y su total incapacidad para garantizar la seguridad de sus gobernados a pesar del despliegue inconstitucional del ejército y la marina en las calles, la gente se ha visto obligada a organizarse. Para los pueblos originarios, acostumbrados al ataque constante del Estado, resultó natural reforzar sus mecanismos de defensa: sus Policías Comunitarias, medulares en su estructura de autogobierno, a tal grado que están reconocidas en la Ley 701 de reconocimiento, derechos y cultura de los pueblos indígenas (1).

Siguiendo el ejemplo de los pueblos indígenas, comunidades enteras empezaron a hacerse cargo de su seguridad, surgiendo grupos de autodefensas exponiendo no solo la negligencia del gobierno, también sus vínculos con los grupos criminales. Con este escenario la estrategia era fortalecer las capacidades represivas del Estado agudizando la guerra implacable que el gobierno en todos sus niveles lleva a cabos contra sus ciudadanos y destruir cualquier posible organización.

Fotografía Carlos Wagner.
Fotografía Carlos Wagner.

Sólo los delincuentes que gobiernan lo que queda del país se benefician de la tragedia que han propiciado. La noticia de la ejecución sumaria en el Estado de México de 22 personas por parte del ejército, es tomada más como una amenaza velada que como un crimen. El cinismo y la estupidez de la clase política son tan grandes como el horror que se vive día a día en las calles. Los políticos son viles gestores del gran capital. Un sistema financiero en crisis que necesita de todos los recursos posibles para mantenerse. Sus esbirros saben que el botín vale la pena, sus fortunas se explican, por ejemplo, con la entrega de un cuarto del territorio nacional a mineras extranjeras. Más de 51 millones 994 mil 312.7 hectáreas son explotadas intensivamente dejando apenas el 1% de lo que extraen. La criminalización del municipio como entidad de gobierno, está enfocada a la desaparición del ayuntamiento libre –base del federalismo mexicano e inspiración del anarquismo local- para ser ocupado bélicamente por las fuerzas federales y permitir este despojo. Al día de hoy 22 municipios de Guerrero, 6 del Estado de México, 4 de Morelos y dos de Michoacán han sido invadidos por el ejército, como parte de la “estrategia de seguridad nacional” (2).

Notas:

(1) El artículo 37 de la Ley 701 establece que conforme a lo previsto a la Ley 281 de Seguridad Pública del Estado de Guerrero y al orden de supletoriedad y objeto de la seguridad pública en ella establecidos. http://i.guerrero.gob.mx/uploads/2012/07/24-Ley-701-RecDerCultura-Ind.pdf
(2) http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2014/12/04/politica/003n1pol

Colaboración para periódico Solidaridad

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