No más AFP: El Sistema de previsión debe ser un derecho social

El actual sistema de pensiones fue impuesto en 1981 durante la Dictadura Militar, enmarcado dentro de una serie de reformas que instaurarían el modelo neoliberal en Chile, las cuales fueron lideradas por los “Chicago Boys”, a la cabeza de los cuales se encontraba José Piñera (hermano del ex presidente).

Es obvio que a las y los trabajadores del país no se les preguntó su opinión, ni tampoco participaron en su elaboración. La gran campaña de propaganda mediática en donde aparecían rostros tan insignes del fascismo criollo como Mario Kreutzberguer señalando las “bondades” del nuevo sistema, la amenaza del desempleo, las represalias físicas, y por supuesto, la promesa económica de llegar a la vejez con pensiones que bordearían el 70% del salario percibido durante la “época activa” de trabajo de una persona, sumado a que el porcentaje de descuento era mucho menor (10% contra un 25% de las cajas de ahorro previsional, lo que se traducía en más dinero líquido a fin de mes),fueron algunos de los factores que llevaron a muchos a abandonar el antiguo sistema de cajas de ahorro previsional, pasando a engrosar este nuevo sistema de especulación financiera bautizado como Administradoras de Fondos de Pensiones (AFP). El nuevo modelo previsional prometía grandes niveles de ahorro, lo que se traduciría en mejores pensiones al momento de jubilar, pero como todas y todos sabemos, el sistema de AFP ha demostrado una total incapacidad para generar pensiones dignas para la clase trabajadora, pero sí una efectividad esplendida al momento de crear utilidades para los dueños de estas entidades, quienes juegan con el dinero de todos nosotros en la bolsa, especulando con él, invirtiendo y llenándose los bolsillos a costa del fruto de nuestro trabajo.


El sistema de AFP funciona como un sistema de capitalización individual, es decir, es el mismo trabajador quien debe asegurar su pensión al llegar a la vejez, sin recibir ningún aporte ni del empleador, ni del Estado. Las AFP invierten nuestro dinero en empresas nacionales y extranjeras, que supuestamente deberían hacer crecer los fondos de ahorro de las y los trabajadores. Sin embargo, las incalculables ganancias de las AFP no se traducen en pensiones dignas al final de nuestra vida laboral, sino que son prestadas a entidades financieras y grandes empresas privadas, o derechamente apropiadas por quienes ya son lo suficientemente ricos; se estima que el crecimiento anual de los fondos de pensiones es de alrededor de un 30%, que contrasta enormemente con el paupérrimo 5% que crece el fondo del trabajador. Como se ve, un negocio redondo para los dueños de las AFP.

La gran mentira de las AFP está hoy más al descubierto que nunca. Después de 34 años de su puesta en marcha podemos comprobar fehacientemente que las pensiones escasamente llegan a alcanzar un 30% del sueldo que el trabajador tuvo en su último trabajo, y esto en el caso de los hombres, ya que las mujeres reciben un escaso 25% del salario que poseían antes de jubilar.

 

¿Qué hacer entonces?

El gobierno de la “Nueva Mayoría” propone un sistema de AFP estatal, que funcionaría con las misma lógica individual en la cual cada quien se rasca con sus propias garras, y que no concibe la previsión como un derecho social para quienes se han pasado toda su vida haciendo crecer con su trabajo al país.

El sistema previsional no debe generar riqueza sino pensiones dignas. Con la creación de un fondo de reparto solidario y no de capitalización individual como funciona hoy en día, se podría avanzar en esta dirección. Tal como lo han señalado muchas voces disidentes, agrupadas en la “Coordinadora Nacional No + AFP”, hay que hacerse cargo socialmente del sistema de pensiones, mediante un financiamiento tripartito, en donde el trabajador y la trabajadora aporten con el ahorro de su trabajo, el empleador ponga otra parte y el Estado se haga cargo del porcentaje restante. Es un cambio radical de lógica, ya que se pasaría de una visión mercantil  e individualista, a una concepción solidaria y colectiva del problema, que permitirá finalmente envejecer con dignidad.

 

por Lucía Rebeldía

[Publicado en la edición N°25 de Solidaridad]

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