Kilapán y la lucha Mapuche durante el siglo XIX

“Mientras haya coligües para construir nuestras lanzas, no dejaremos entrar a nuestra tierra a los winkas”

Kilapán

José Santos Kilapán nació probablemente en 1840 en Adencul, Victoria, provincia de Malleco. Siendo muy joven, su padre el gran cacique Mañil Huenu, lo envió a vivir con el lonko Juan Kalfucura, héroe mapuche que luchó contra el ejército argentino en la “Guerra de las Pampas” (1848-1855). Luego de aprender de las artes militares y de la sabiduría de Kalfucura, su padre antes de morir, lo mandó a llamar y le hizo jurar no dejar entrar a los invasores chilenos al Wallmapu.

Luego del fallecimiento de su padre, Kilapán fue puesto ante una junta de caciques, quienes se reunieron en Perquenco, al norte de la ciudad de Temuco. En el lugar se encontraban los lonkos de las zonas de Collipulli, Lautaro, Llaima, Cunco, Temuco y Pillanlelbun. Al finalizar su discurso, según cuenta la leyenda, después de un día, fue reconocido como toki y comenzó a planificar un plan para detener el avance del ejército chileno, el cual progresivamente se acercaba hacia las tierras ancestrales de su pueblo.

En 1860 el Estado chileno promovió la ocupación de tierras por colonos y el saqueo de sus recursos naturales, no respetando los acuerdos pactados en los parlamentos, con lo cual los mapuche se vieron forzados a empuñar las armas. Kilapán junto a su hermano Epuleo, le hacen frente al ejército invasor, manteniendo por más de diez años a raya en el límite del río Malleco a los “winkas”.  En 1868 derrotó al ejército comandado por el coronel Pedro Lagos (futuro “héroe” de la  Guerra del Pacífico)en la batalla de Quecheregua, obligando con esto al Congreso Nacional a pronunciarse, el cual propuso la firma de un tratado de paz, el que sin embargo, fue rechazado por los mapuche, ya que lo consideraban como una indigna rendición.

Para hacer frente a una guerra desigual, Kilapán y los mapuche buscaron aliados por todos lados, ya que necesitaban imperiosamente conseguir armas modernas. El abogado francés, Orélie Antoine de Tounens, era el hombre que necesitaban: ofreció armas y recursos a los mapuche para continuar la guerra. Fue así como este personaje fue proclamado “Rey de la Araucanía y la Patagonia”, respetando eso sí, la autodeterminación del pueblo mapuche. Orélie, fue capturado, poco antes que un barco repleto de armas proveniente de Francia llegase a manos de los mapuche.

Durante el año 1871, Kilapán, lanzó una ofensiva sobre los colonos chilenos y europeos que ya habían usurpado tierras en las cercanías de Collipulli y Victoria; este fue el último gran esfuerzo del toki para frenar definitivamente el avance de las fuerzas militares del Estado chileno. El ejército mapuche fue finalmente masacrado por un ejército profesional bien organizado, disciplinado, provisto de rifles de repetición y artillería.

Finalmente, en 1878, mediante el terror y el exterminio, el Estado chileno logra correr su frontera hasta el río Traiguén. Durante ese mismo año, muere Kilapán en la comuna de Lautaro y es sepultado junto a su padre, probablemente en su tierra natal de Adencul. Apenas 5 años después, la ocupación definitiva de la Araucanía, marcaría un antes y un después en la historia del pueblo mapuche, ya que la conquista del Wallmapu por parte de los Estados de Chile y Argentina a través de sus respectivos ejércitos (que quedarían registrados en la historia oficial con los eufemismos de “Pacificación de la Araucanía” y “Conquista del desierto”), traería como consecuencia la pérdida de más del 95% del territorio ancestral, la expoliación de la tierra, el genocidio, el desplazamiento forzado, y el exilio para la mayor parte de los mapuche.

La figura de Kilapán, junto a muchas otras de la resistencia mapuche, cobran una enorme importancia en el presente, ya que una nueva invasión azota a quienes aún sobreviven a duras penas en el Wallmapu: la ambición empresarial. El capitalismo encarnado en las forestales, las empresas hidroeléctricas, las exploraciones y los proyectos mineros, y los grandes latifundistas, amparado por el Estado chileno y sus aparatos represivos, amenaza con aniquilar definitivamente el derecho a existir como pueblo de los mapuche. Pero los mapuche, hoy como ayer resisten dignamente. Los guerreros renacen y se inspiran en la historia de los “antiguos”, para luchar por autonomía y control territorial. Sólo recuperando su tierra, cerros, agua, lugares sagrados y el hábitat de sus familias, los mapuche podrán vivir como antaño, con su propia cultura y cosmovisión de mundo.

por Espartaco Gatti

[Publicado en la edición n°25 de Solidaridad]

108 Comments en Kilapán y la lucha Mapuche durante el siglo XIX

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