¿Por qué el mundo está ignorando a los kurdos revolucionarios en Siria?

En medio de la zona de guerra siria un experimento democrático está siendo traído al suelo por Isis. Que el resto del mundo no se da cuenta es un escándalo.

por David Graeber*

En 1937, mi padre se ofreció como voluntario para luchar en las Brigadas Internacionales en defensa de la República española. Un posible golpe fascista había sido detenido temporalmente por la sublevación de los obreros, encabezada por los anarquistas y socialistas, y en gran parte de España una auténtica revolución social se produjo, lo que llevó a ciudades enteras en autogestión democrática, industrias bajo el control de los trabajadores, y el fortalecimiento radical de las mujeres.

Los revolucionarios españoles esperaban crear una visión de una sociedad libre que todo el mundo podría seguir. En cambio, las potencias mundiales declararon una política de “no intervención” y mantuvieron un bloqueo riguroso de la república, incluso después de que Hitler y Mussolini, signatarios ostensibles, comenzaron a mandar tropas y armas para reforzar el lado fascista. El resultado fue años de guerra civil que terminó con la derrota de la revolución y algunas de las masacres más sangrientas de un siglo sangriento.

Yo nunca pensé que vería, en mi propia vida, ocurrir la misma cosa. Obviamente, ningún acontecimiento histórico sucede realmente dos veces. Hay mil diferencias entre lo que ocurrió en España en 1936 y lo que está sucediendo en Rojava, las tres provincias kurdas en gran parte del norte de Siria, hoy. Pero algunas de las similitudes son tan sorprendentes, y tan angustiosas, que siento que me incumbe, como alguien que creció en una familia cuya política eran en muchos aspectos definida por la revolución española, decir: no podemos dejar que termine de la misma manera otra vez.

La región autónoma de Rojava, tal como existe hoy en día, es uno de los pocos puntos brillantes – en realidad uno muy brillante – que emergieron de la tragedia de la revolución siria. Después de haber expulsado a agentes del régimen de Assad en 2011, y a pesar de la hostilidad de casi todos sus vecinos, Rojava no sólo ha mantenido su independencia, sino que es un notable experimento democrático. Las asambleas populares han sido creadas como los órganos de toma de decisiones en última instancia, los consejos seleccionados con cuidado equilibrio étnico (en cada municipio, por ejemplo, los tres altos oficiales tienen que incluir uno kurdo, uno árabe y otro cristiano asirio o armenio, y al menos una de los tres tiene que ser una mujer), existen consejos juveniles y de mujeres y, en un notable eco de la organización armada Mujeres Libres de España, un ejército feminista, la milicia “YJA Estrella” (la “Unión de Mujeres libres “, la estrella hace referencia a la antigua diosa mesopotámica Ishtar), que ha llevado a cabo una gran parte de las operaciones de combate contra las fuerzas del Estado islámico.

¿Cómo puede ocurrir algo así y todavía ser casi totalmente ignorado por la comunidad internacional, incluso, en gran parte, por la izquierda internacional? Principalmente, al parecer, debido a que el partido revolucionario de Rojavan, el PYD, trabaja en alianza con los Trabajadores kurdos de Turquía (PKK), un movimiento guerrillero marxista que desde los años 1970 ha estado involucrado en una larga guerra contra el Estado turco. La OTAN, los EE.UU. y la UE lo clasifican oficialmente como una organización “terrorista”. Mientras tanto, los izquierdistas en gran medida los describen como estalinistas.

Pero, en realidad, el propio PKK ya no es nada remotamente parecido al viejo partido leninista y vertical que alguna una vez fue. Su propia evolución interna, y la conversión intelectual de su propio fundador, Abdullah Ocalan, que tuvo lugar en una prisión en una isla turca desde 1999, lo ha llevado a cambiar por completo sus objetivos y tácticas.

El PKK ha declarado que ya ni siquiera trata de crear un estado kurdo. En su lugar, inspirado en parte por la visión del ecólogo social y anarquista Murray Bookchin, ha adoptado la visión de “municipalismo libertario”, llamando a los kurdos a crear comunidades libres, autónomas, basadas en los principios de democracia directa, que luego se unirían a través de fronteras nacionales – las cuales se espera que se vuelvan progresivamente insignificantes. De esta forma, propusieron, la lucha kurda podría convertirse en un modelo para un movimiento mundial hacia una auténtica democracia, economía cooperativa, y la disolución gradual de la nación-estado burocrático.

Desde 2005, el PKK, inspirado en la estrategia de los rebeldes zapatistas en Chiapas, declaró un alto al fuego unilateral con el Estado turco y comenzó a concentrar sus esfuerzos en el desarrollo de estructuras democráticas en los territorios que ya controlaban. Algunos han cuestionado que tan serio es todo esto en realidad. Claramente, permanecen elementos autoritarios. Pero lo que ha sucedido en Rojava, donde la revolución siria le dio a los radicales kurdos la oportunidad de llevar a cabo tales experimentos en un gran territorio, contiguo, sugiere que esto es cualquier cosa menos una fachada. Consejos, asambleas y milicias populares se han formado, la propiedad del régimen ha sido entregado a las cooperativas administradas por los trabajadores – y todo a pesar de continuos ataques por parte de las fuerzas de extrema derecha de Isis. Los resultados cumplen con cualquier definición de una revolución social. En el Medio Oriente, por lo menos, estos esfuerzos se han hecho notar: sobre todo después de que las fuerzas del PKK y Rojava intervinieran para abrirse exitosamente un camino a través del territorio de Isis en Irak para rescatar a miles de refugiados yezidis atrapados en el Monte Sinjar después de que los locales peshmerga huyeran del campo. Estas acciones fueron ampliamente celebradas en la región, pero notablemente casi no llamaron la atención en la prensa europea o norteamericana.

Ahora, Isis ha vuelto, con decenas de tanques de fabricación estadounidense y artillería pesada tomadas de las fuerzas iraquíes, para tomar venganza en contra de muchas de esas mismas milicias revolucionarias en Kobané, declarando su intención de masacrar y esclavizar – sí, literalmente esclavizar – a toda la población civil. Mientras tanto, el ejército turco se sitúa en la frontera evitando que refuerzos o municiones lleguen a los defensores, y los aviones norteamericanos pasa por encima zumbando lanzando algunos simbólicos ocasionales diminutos bombardeos – al parecer, sólo para poder decir que no es cierto que no hicieron nada como un grupo que dice estar en guerra con los defensores de uno de los grandes experimentos democráticos del mundo.

Si hay un paralelo hoy con los superficiales devotos, falangistas asesinos de Franco, ¿quiénes serían sino Isis? Si hay un paralelo a la Mujeres Libres de España, ¿quienes podrían ser sino las mujeres valientes que defienden las barricadas en Kobané? El mundo – y esta vez más escandalosamente, la izquierda internacional – será realmente cómplice de dejar que la historia se repita?

*Fuente: bitacoraanarquista.wordpress.com (Perú). Este artículo fue publicado originalmente en la página web de The Guardian el 8 de Octubre del 2014. Traducido y editado por Renzo Forero.

SK

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