“Los Amigos de Durruti” y la Revolución española

En julio de 1936 los fascistas se sublevaron e intentaron dar un Golpe Militar contra la República en España, sin embargo, debido a la exclusiva acción de la clase trabajadora organizada, fueron derrotados en prácticamente la mitad del país, iniciándose así la denominada “Guerra Civil Española”. En Barcelona y en otras zonas liberadas, la derrota parcial del bando nacional, inflamó los corazones humildes de los de abajo, quienes se emplearon en la titánica tarea de crear un mundo nuevo, impulsando la revolución social. De esta manera el pueblo trabajador puso a funcionar bajo su poder fábricas y talleres, colectivizó la tierra en el campo, creó asambleas populares y consejos para gobernar los pueblos, formó patrullas de control en base a voluntarios, e incluso en algunos lugares se abolió el dinero y se tomaba lo que se necesitaba “del montón”.

No obstante, rápidamente, las organizaciones que componían el Frente Popular (y el gobierno de la República) intentaron frenar el “impulso irresponsable” de las masas, llamando a la moderación, al respeto de la propiedad privada y a la disciplina de cuartel, lo que se tradujo en el llamado a conformar una amplia alianza de clases; única manera, según su visión, de poder vencer al fascismo. Sin embargo, no sólo fueron los partidos y organizaciones sindicales miembros del Frente Popular quienes siguieron esta línea, sino que la dirección oficial del gigantesco movimiento libertario (compuesto por la anarcosindicalista Confederación Nacional del Trabajo-CNT, la Federación Anarquista Ibérica-FAI, y las Juventudes Libertarias) también se sumó a esta estrategia, apoyando la supresión de las conquistas revolucionarias y el poder popular, en abierta oposición a la voluntad del pueblo y de su propia militancia de base.

En medio de este contexto, es que surge la “Agrupación los Amigos de Durruti”, tendencia anarquista, que intentó contra viento y marea, inyectar al movimiento popular nuevas fuerzas para luchar por la revolución, con un programa directo y preciso, y con las armas en la mano. La Agrupación fue constituida formalmente el 15 de marzo de 1937, en su gran mayoría por combatientes del frente de Aragón que se opusieron a la militarización de las milicias y al retroceso de lo conquistado por la clase trabajadora con tanto sudor y sangre. Rápidamente se ganó las simpatías de muchas y muchos descontentos con el rumbo que tomaba la revolución, y llegó a sumar entre 4000 y 5000 militantes. La tensión entre el campo “antifascista” finalmente estalló, y en mayo de 1937 en Barcelona las y los revolucionarios se enfrentaron en la calle con la República y sus aliados. Durante las “Jornadas de Mayo”, la Agrupación jugó un rol fundamental, al intentar brindar una dirección y objetivos revolucionarios al movimiento espontáneo. Posteriormente, sacaron a la luz un periódico de combate bautizado “El Amigo del Pueblo”, en donde expresaron más clara y detalladamente sus ideas. Excomulgados del movimiento anarquista oficial (que a esa altura ya estaba en el gobierno), perseguidos, calumniados, tachados de “incontrolados” y “provocadores”, encarcelados y borrados de la historia, hemos querido reproducir la síntesis del programa que estos compañeros y compañeras difundieron en aquella álgida época, y que Jaime Balius Mir –uno de los más destacados militantes de la Agrupación-, redactó en el folleto Hacia una nueva Revolución.

 

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El Programa de la “Agrupación los Amigos de Durruti”

 

I.- Constitución de una Junta revolucionaria o Consejo Nacional de defensa.

Este organismo se constituirá de la siguiente manera: Los miembros de la Junta Revolucionaria se elegirán democráticamente en los organismos sindicales. Se tendrá en cuenta el número de camaradas desplazados al frente que forzosamente habrán de tener representación. La Junta no se inmiscuirá en los asuntos económicos que atañen exclusivamente a los sindicatos.

Las funciones de la Junta revolucionaria son las siguientes:

a) Dirigir la guerra.

b) Velar por el orden revolucionario.

c) Asuntos internacionales.

d) Propaganda revolucionaria.

Los cargos serán renovados periódicamente para evitar que nadie tenga apego al mismo. Y las Asambleas sindicales ejercerán el control de las actividades de la Junta.

 

II.- Todo el poder económico a los sindicatos.

Los sindicatos han demostradodesde julio su gran poder constructivo.Si no se les hubiese relegadoa un papel de segunda fila, hubierandado un gran rendimiento. Serán lasorganizaciones sindicales quienes estructurenla economía proletaria.

 Teniendo en cuenta las modalidadesde los sindicatos de Industria y lasfederaciones de Industria, podrá ademáscrearse un Consejo de Economíacon el objeto de coordinar mejor lasactividades económicas.

 

III.- Municipio Libre.

En la España que precede a las dinastías extranjeras se defendía con gran tesón las prerrogativas municipales. Esta descentralización permite evitar que se levante un nuevo armazón estatal. Y aquel esbozo de libertades que sucumbió en Villalar resurgirá en la nueva España que patrocina el proletariado. Y se resolverán los llamados problemas catalán, vasco…

Los Municipios se encargarán de las funciones sociales que se escapan de la órbita de los sindicatos. Y como vamos a estructurar una sociedad netamente de productores serán los propios organismos sindicales quienes irán a nutrir los centros municipales. Y no habiendo disparidad de intereses no podrán existir antagonismos.

Los Municipios se constituirán en federaciones locales, comarcales y peninsular. Los sindicatos y los Municipios establecerán relaciones en el área local, comarcal y nacional.

buenaventuradurruticartel

por Nahuel Valenzuela

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