La Comparsa juanYrosa y el renacer de la cultura popular

En los rincones cuequeros de Valparaíso conversamos con Rosa Jiménez y Juan José Lazcano, integrantes de la “Comparsa juanYrosa”, y miembros de la Escuela Carnavalera Chinchintirapié. Estas expresiones de nuestra cultura, junto con otras agrupaciones y grupos de danzas y canto, además de integrar tradición e innovación, han jugado un papel importante en las movilizaciones sociales de los últimos años, es por esto que quisimos saber un poco más sobre el rescate actual de la Cueca Brava y el Carnaval, y su relación con el mundo y la cultura popular.

 

“La Comparsa juanYrosa

alegría novedosa

bailarina y chinchinero

en las fiestas todos gozan

 Gozadera de la herencia

de nuestro arte popular

cuecas, cumbias, valsesitos,

buenas coplas pa animar!”

 

¿Cómo, cuándo y por qué nacen la Cueca Brava y el Carnaval?         

La cueca como género en América, está presente desde la colonia y se populariza en el período de la independencia en América Latina, tomando variantes regionales tanto en Argentina, Bolivia, Perú, Chile, entre otros. La cueca brava es una expresión más de estas variantes. Su denominación de brava surge en el año 1968, a  partir de un disco de Los Chileneros, en el cual participa el gran cultor de cueca Hernán Núñez, titulado “La Cueca Brava”. Esta cueca recoge una tradición de canto y de texto que refleja  muchos años de historia, a contar de principios del siglo 20. Es una corriente de cueca que surge en la urbe, que narra la vida de conventillos, “casas de tolerancia”, fondas y bajos fondos, cuya práctica musical se centra en el canto, con una clara presencia del cantor popular, que rescata los textos desde la tradición oral.

Por su lado, y en otro tiempo y lugar, el Carnaval  tiene su  origen  en  una tradición europea medieval, definido como un período que comprende los tres días anteriores al miércoles de ceniza, día en que empieza la cuaresma en el calendario litúrgico cristiano o católico. En dicho período  lo carnavalesco, se expresa en una fiesta popular que invierte los poderes oficiales, que abre la dimensión de una corporalidad llena se sensualidad, exceso y juegos, expresados en  mascaradas, bailes y comparsas. El carnaval en Latinoamérica se instala desde la colonia, y permite el sincretismo con expresiones  festivas de los pueblos originarios  y de los esclavos negros  de nuestro continente. Por tanto el carnaval refleja nuestro origen mestizo y complejidad cultural poscolombina, en donde los contenidos de su celebración también se relacionan con las festividades indígenas, relacionadas con los ciclos agrícolas, entendidos como parte fundamental en el desarrollo de la vida y la comunidad.

Pero más allá de una  fecha determinada de celebración, es relevante hablar de lo carnavalesco, concepto que alude a un espíritu festivo que tiñe la celebración en comunidad. Un antecedente histórico en la zona central  de Chile se encuentra en la fiesta de la challa, festividad que se celebraba en época de verano en Santiago, que tiene antecedentes históricos relacionados con las fechas de carnaval histórico-colonial. Ahora en  Chile la palabra Carnaval, se utiliza para dar cuenta de una fiesta que se realiza en el espacio público en el cual diversas comparsas realizan un pasacalle, es decir un desfile-procesión festiva por la calles de un territorio. El carnaval se construye en comunidad, es la fiesta popular, que tiene como propósito celebrar algún hito que haga sentido colectivo, un aniversario, una demanda común, una celebración.

¿Cómo se relacionan la Cueca Brava y el Carnaval con la identidad popular en Chile?

Tanto la cueca y el carnaval son reflejo de la identidad cultural de nuestro pueblo, reflejan nuestra memoria, nuestra creatividad, nuestra mestizaje e hibridez cultural. Esta identidad da cuenta de nuestra singularidad, es decir lo que nos distingue de otros pueblos, reconociéndonos desde lo que nos hace diferentes. Dicha particularidad se refleja en el caso de la cueca, en nuestros modismos que aparecen en los textos de la cueca, nuestras metáforas,  historias y lugares, así también en la forma de cantarla y bailarla. La cueca es carnavalesca en el sentido que despierta el espíritu libertario de aquellos que la cantan y la bailan, aquellos que se sumergen y comparten su trance festivo. Es en ese compartir donde los seres humanos que cohabitamos un mismo contexto cultural, nos reconocemos como parte de una misma historia social, que refleja la vida de aquellos que somos marginales a los poderes oficiales y dominantes de nuestra sociedad. Lo popular, como lo excluido a la concepción de la academia y las bellas artes eurocéntricas. En este sentido el carnaval también surge de la creatividad colectiva, que da cuenta de nuestra identidad popular. En el carnaval se refleja con gran fuerza las influencias y diversidades culturales del mundo globalizado, y en Chile se van adoptando expresiones que van desde las batucadas afro latinoamericano y expresiones del carnaval andino, junto a ellas aparecen búsquedas contemporáneas de comparsas con identidad local, influenciadas por el teatro callejero. El carnaval en Chile se va forjando desde la necesidad de apropiarse del espacio público, de la calle, que en Chile tiene una memoria más política que festiva. Tanto la Cueca como el Carnaval, nos conectan con  tradiciones de un pasado que se reactualiza con las necesidades sociales de expresión del  presente, por tanto reflejan una dialéctica, una identidad que se forjan en la memoria, pero que se dinamiza en un vida cultural que no es estática, pues se nutre del día a día.

¿Cómo y por qué surge el rescate de la Cueca Brava y el Carnaval en Santiago y Valparaíso a partir de los noventa?

El rescate de la cueca, tiene que ver con el interés de jóvenes en torno a lo que simboliza la cueca como expresión de la historia del pueblo, ocultado de la historia oficial, y la necesidad de barrer con el estereotipo generado por la Dictadura en relación a la cueca, que la llenó de prejuicios. Surge como una manera de recuperar una cueca que transmiten los cultores, principalmente por vía oral  y un espacio en donde ir rearticulando los quiebres que impuso la Dictadura.
En cuanto al carnaval, su rescate tiene que ver con la rearticulización sociocultural de los territorios marginales, como un espacio de expresión social y cultural que está fuera del circuito de la elite de las artes, y del mercado de las mismas, que recogen actividades de la animación sociocultural, ligado al teatro callejero, a las colonias urbanas y la identificación de las clases populares con las batucadas, como espacio de poder popular.

En suma, ambos son partícipes de una lenta reparación del tejido social, quebrado tras la Dictadura.

¿Qué papel jugaron y juegan en este proceso personajes como Roberto Parra, Eduardo Parra o Nano Núñez (o alguno/a otro/a que conozcan)? 
Ellos transmiten la cueca y su espíritu festivo. Son puentes entre la vivencia en primera persona de las expresiones populares donde se vive la cueca, con el fenómeno de revitalización producido a partir de los años 90. Fueron protagonistas del cruce  que se produjo con músicos jóvenes interesados en conocer esta expresión musical, repartiéndoles sus enseñanzas, lo que sin duda permitió el conocimiento y revalorización de la cueca.

 por Teresa Acosta y Arturo López

[publicado en la edición n°23 de Solidaridad]

juanYrosa 1 juanYrosa 2 (2)

 

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