A 200 años del nacimiento de Bakunin

Mijail Bakunin, personaje controversial, llega al mundo el 30 de mayo de 1814 en una bella finca situada en Tver, en el distrito de Torjok, entre San Petersburgo y Moscú. Hijo de familia noble, su padre fue Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores en los tiempos de Catalina II, tuvo una formación de “libre pensador” y algunos de sus familiares estuvieron vinculados al “dicembrismo”, movimiento político de las clases altas que buscaba llevar a adelante reformas del tipo democrático burguesas.

Se forma en filosofía, siendo uno de los promotores, junto a Stankevich, de Hegel en Rusia. De todas formas, a pesar de que ya en ese entonces existían militantes como Herzen -a quien conocía de cerca y fue uno de sus grandes amigos- su entrada a la lucha revolucionaría será en Alemania, junto a la izquierda hegeliana. Al lado de Ruge, Marx, Engels y compañía. Bakunin empezará su acercamiento a las ideas socialistas, a Proudhon, a Weitling y a las organizaciones obreras. Alcanzará algo de fama en a partir de un breve texto firmado con un pseudónimo, participará en las barricadas del ‘48, entablará amistad con Wagner y al calor de la causa de un proletariado emergente consolidará su renombre en toda Europa. Caerá preso 10 años, perderá su dentadura y engordará su figura, adquirirá deficiencias crónicas en el encierro y en la realización de su plan de escape, conocerá a su compañera polaca, Antonia.

Volverá a Europa cruzando el mundo y retomará contacto con sus viejos camaradas, entre ellos Marx, quien elogia el retorno del ruso, aunque en el tiempo se volverán a distanciar, a pesar del profundo respeto intelectual que sentía Bakunin por el alemán; respeto que lo llevó a empezar una traducción de El Capital que, tal como con muchas otras empresas, nunca terminó. De todas formas, Bakunin es responsable de la primera traducción rusa del Manifiesto Comunista en 1868. Su imponente figura seguiría recorriendo Europa organizando revolucionarios: será el principal responsable de introducir el socialismo en Italia, desplazando a Mazzini y gestor de la llegada del anarquismo a España. Ya entregado a la causa de los trabajadores militará en la AIT, dando comienzo a la disputa épica que marcó gran parte de la historia del movimiento obrero hasta la fecha. Entrará en contacto con Nechayev y se dará comienzo a uno de los episodios más confusos de su vida, una gran cuña para aquellos que, sin destacar por lo riguroso, confunden sin reparos a dos personajes que representan concepciones totalmente diferentes e intentarán hacer ver al padre del anarquismo como un grandilocuente terrorista.

Se infiltrará en Francia para la guerra franco-prusiana, intentará liderar un levantamiento en Lyon que fracasará. A los meses se levanta imponente la Comuna de París, ese destello de poder proletario que dará nuevas orientaciones estratégicas al conjunto del socialismo, pero al mismo tiempo será la encarnación de las reflexiones de Bakunin ya a fines de 1860. Ante el fracaso de la revolución en Europa, con la derrota de la Comuna, decide, en 1874, retirarse. Su análisis considera que pasarán al menos unos 30 años antes de un nuevo proceso de auge de la lucha de clases. Muere en 1876, unas 40 personas van su funeral. Unos 30 años después, tal y como lo vaticinó, en Rusia durante el año 1905, las y los trabajadores volverán a la carga.

 

A diferencia de lo que muchos creen, el sentido más profundo de la reflexión “bakuniniana” sobre el Estado está cruzado por el tema del poder. Si bien son las reflexiones en torno al Estado lo que más se le reconoce, su concepción sobre el rol histórico otorgado al principio de autoridad y que emerge como una necesidad histórica permite pensar y luchar por su superación. Es decir, no es sólo el Estado el que pasará a ser un cacharro histórico, sino las formas autoritarias mismas serán superadas, porque perderán razón de ser.

 

Constantemente denostado, Bakunin es un pensador clave para los socialistas por varias razones. Si bien nada de lo que dice Bakunin es tan novedoso a estas alturas, creo que hay tres líneas de trabajo donde sus énfasis son precursores respecto de discusiones posteriores. Por un lado, si bien su obra es dispersa y fragmentaria, es posible vislumbrar detrás de toda esa montaña de reflexiones a un pensador sistemático, que intentaba hilar de forma coherente el grueso de sus reflexiones políticas con una concepción del mundo sistemática. Herencia hegeliana, Bakunin siempre operó con una visión de conjunto. Su punto de partida fue siempre la totalidad de lo real. Por otro lado, esa capacidad le permite comprender que los aportes de Marx, en varios aspectos, son claves; siempre lo respetó como intelectual y siguió la línea de varias de sus reflexiones. En ese sentido, tanto su perspectiva como su apertura crítica y receptiva de aporte de otras corrientes lo vuelve un pensador heterodoxo y manifiesta un espíritu que logra colocar por delante el análisis de la realidad a la repetición canónica de los textos. Es sólo esto lo que le permite decirse heredero de Proudhon y superarlo al mismo tiempo, ser receptivo con Marx pero mantener su concepción anti-estatista y anti-autoritaria. Es así que Bakunin se coloca en la línea de anarquistas más consistentes, predecesor de libertarios de la calidad de Makhno, Malatesta, Balius, Fontenis, Berneri y Guérin.

Por otro lado, creo que es meritorio rescatar la noción de Bakunin de partido político, el cual no sólo se remite a la construcción de aparatos, sino que se inscribe en una concepción mucho más amplia y compleja, que reconoce campos y líneas estratégicas por sobre los aparatos particulares. Este punto clave, sobre todo para mantener una perspectiva crítica de aquellos que han confundido partido con aparato político, sin saber dar el salto y quedando atrapados en imaginarios añejos, narcisistas, estatistas y autoritarios, colocando en riesgo un largo proceso de acumulación de fuerza libertaria.

Finalmente, rescatar sus reflexiones sobre el poder y la ética militante. A diferencia de lo que muchos creen, el sentido más profundo de la reflexión “bakuniniana” sobre el Estado está cruzado por el tema del poder. Si bien son las reflexiones en torno al Estado lo que más se le reconoce, su concepción sobre el rol histórico otorgado al principio de autoridad y que emerge como una necesidad histórica permite pensar y luchar por su superación. Es decir, no es sólo el Estado el que pasará a ser un cacharro histórico, sino las formas autoritarias mismas serán superadas, porque perderán razón de ser. Es así que Bakunin debe ser puesto en el marco de referencia obligatorio para todos aquellos que comprenden que el poder de la clase obrera debe asumir formas diferentes a las burguesas, que las formas y los contenidos van de la mano, y que la construcción de poder de la clase trabajadora es una tarea política que no puede ser dejada al azar, sino que debe ser la reflexión central que articule todo el proceso de construcción estratégica y lucha del proletariado. Al mismo tiempo, este desafío político va de la mano de una práctica “ad hoc”, es decir, de una intachable conducta militante, ya que en última instancia la ética de los cuadros es el gran mecanismo de autodisciplina, que impide que nuestros compañeros y compañeras se mareen a la hora de manejar cargos de responsabilidad y, en vez de utilizar el poder para objetivos revolucionarios, el poder como mecanismo impersonal, los someta a su lógica de auto-reproducción y perpetuación. Una clara concepción materialista del poder obliga al control ético y colectivo de las actividades militantes.

A doscientos años de su nacimiento, la letra de Bakunin nos entrega un espíritu que merece ser repetido. La perspectiva crítica, su intransigencia clasista, su moral militante, sus esfuerzos por construir partido, son todos elementos necesarios para revitalizar las prácticas de la militancia diaria.

por Vladimir Benoit

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