Flora Sanhueza Rebolledo: una luchadora libertaria para no olvidar

Hemos querido traer al presente la figura de una compañera libertaria, que en la zona norte de Chile, luchó por hacer realidad nuestros inquebrantables anhelos de conseguir dignidad y libertad para aquella enorme parte de la humanidad que es explotada y oprimida cotidianamente.

Flora nació en España en 1911, en el seno de una familia de ascendencia vasca, forjada bajo el alero de las ideas libertarias. Sus padres exiliados, llegan a Chile cuando Flora contaba con tan solo 7 años. La Familia se radica en el norte del país, específicamente en la localidad costera de Pisagua (Región de Tarapacá). Las reflexiones sacadas de los sucesos trágicos de la Matanza de Santa María de Iquique, que aún se mantenían muy frescos en la memoria de los nortinos, el entorno familiar, y seguramente su propia experiencia de vida, la llevan a abrazar tempranamente el anarquismo.

En 1935 viaja a la Península Ibérica, con la intención de reencontrase con su origen, su pasado, y con la “heroica” España popular en donde los “rojinegros” parecían ser mayoría en los movimientos rebeldes. Luego de la fallida sublevación de los nacionales del 19 de julio de 1936, que da inicio a la guerra y la revolución española, Flora se suma al entusiasmo general provocado por la imagen de un pueblo en armas que ha derrotado a los fascistas y los militares en más de la mitad del país. En Barcelona se alista como miliciana en la Columna conducida por Buenaventura Durruti para barrer al fascismo e impulsar la revolución social. Con el triunfo de Franco en 1939, huye a Francia junto a su esposo, pero con la invasión nazi es hecha prisionera y recluida en uno los innumerables campos de prisioneros, hasta que es finalmente liberada y retorna a Chile en 1942.

En el año 1947 funda el “Ateneo Luisa Michel” en Iquique, en homenaje a la famosa combatiente de la Comuna de París, orientado bajo principios y prácticas educativas antiautoritarias, desarrolladas a principios del siglo XX por el pedagogo Francisco Ferrer Guardia. Este espacio de socialización, alfabetización y autoeducación para adultos de escasos recursos, estaba dirigido especialmente hacia las trabajadoras de la pesca, tejedoras de redes. En medio del gobierno de Gabriel González Videla (1946-1952), que con su “Ley Maldita” (“Ley de defensa  de la democracia”) persiguió sin compasión a comunistas y anarquistas, el ateneo funcionó tomando muchas precauciones, prácticamente en clandestinidad. En 1953, el ateneo se convirtió en una escuela que acogía a las hijas e hijos de las mujeres trabajadoras, llegando a contar con cerca de 70 estudiantes, hasta su cierre, ocurrido 4 años después.

Tras el Golpe de Estado de 19Flora_sanhueza_negotrópica73 Flora es arrestada  junto a su hijo “Tito” y trasladada al campo de concentración de Pisagua. En su interior es salvajemente torturada y violada por los soldados en presencia de su hijo. Las autoridades militares decretan su arresto domiciliario, pero las imborrables secuelas de la tortura la conducen irremediablemente a la muerte el 18 de septiembre de 1974, cuando Flora tenía 63 años.

  por Espartaco Gatti

[Publicado en la edición n°22 de solidaridad]

Mural pintado por la Brigada Negotrópika en Porvenir bajo, Valparaíso

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