Notas sobre el impacto ambiental de la industria del salmón


Por Héctor Kol
En nuestro país, todo lo que hace o deja de hacer la industria salmonera lo decide ésta. Ella determina donde instala las pisciculturas y las balsas-jaulas, el tamaño de las concesiones, la magnitud de la producción, las dimensiones de las balsas-jaulas, las características de los alimentos, las dosis y las formas de administrar los antibióticos a los peces; la capacidad acuícola de una porción de agua en un lago o en un sistema marino; como ha de fiscalizarse su propia producción, etc.
En síntesis, todo aquello que es esencial para regular la gestión ambiental de la industria lo determina ésta. El Estado, a través de sus oficinas ambientales, eventualmente solo cumple el rol de revisar lo que la industria salmonera declara.
Para el Estado chileno y sus órganos con jurisdicción en el tema de la acuicultura, cultivar una hectárea de salmones es equivalente a cultivar una hectárea de choritos. Para tan disímiles actividades el Estado usa el mismo instrumento de evaluación: una declaración de impacto ambiental.
La escasa fiscalización por parte del Estado a través del Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA), que no posee una flota propia para llegar hasta los centros de cultivo, principalmente los de engorde, y la debilidad de las sanciones impuestas a los centros infractores de las ya laxas regulaciones existentes en los años previos a la crisis del virus ISA, permitieron a la industria salmonera hacer de los ambientes acuáticos un campo libre para las peores prácticas ambientales posibles.
Así, previo a la crisis, la pesca artesanal y ONGs ambientalistas habían denunciado una gran variedad de “conflictos ambientales” protagonizados por la industria salmonera en cada etapa de su proceso productivo (desde el ingreso de ovas importadas hasta la fase final de engorde de peces en balsas-jaulas flotantes) y por cada una de las actividades asociadas a ellas, como talleres de lavado y confección de redes, plantas de proceso y hasta en el traslado de mortalidades y de peces vivos por vía marítima o terrestre.
Sin embargo, durante los años de la crisis (de 2007 a 2009), las empresas salmoneras mantuvieron las mismas malas prácticas ambientales de los años previos, favoreciendo la dispersión y contagio de la enfermedad viral.
Por ejemplo, aunque las nuevas disposiciones sanitarias señalaban que las mortalidades por virus ISA debían acumularse en recipientes plásticos herméticos (“bines”) acopiados en plataformas de mortalidades separadas de las unidades de crianza (balsas-jaulas) las empresas salmoneras AquaChile y Los Fiordos, entre otras, persistieron en mantener sus cadáveres de salmones en los pasillos de los centros de cultivo, en contacto directo con el agua e incluso flotando al interior de las mismas balsas- jaulas.
Otras decenas de infracciones a los reglamentos y programas sanitarios modificados o elaborados como respuesta a la presencia de ISAv en Chile, cometidos por las distintas empresas salmoneras en las tres regiones australes del país, han sido constatadas por los organismos fiscalizadores de la gestión ambiental de la industria salmonera.
Así como el caligus ha sido un factor natural incontrarrestable para la industria, también han sido estériles los esfuerzos desplegados para que la propia industria respete las reglas y las leyes que buscan proteger al medio ambiente (y a ella misma) de la degradación ambiental que es capaz de generar. Se trata de una extraña afinidad por mantenerse siempre al margen de la normativa la que cruza cada una de las distintas fases que contempla, en Chile, la producción de salmónidos.
De esa manera, tanto por sus fracasados intentos para controlar al caligus como por su tendencia a no respetar “las reglas del juego”, la industria salmonera en Chile ha iniciado el camino a su agonía final.


  1. I agree, it is about making better choices. Our LEGAL SYSTEM should make better choices when deciding what is admissible in the court of law. This is about whether generic rap lyrics are proof of criminal activity. Most hip hop fans know enough about the industry to know that 90% or more of what these rappers talk about is fake. Which means these lyrics should play no role in a trail. Regardless of how ignorant or reckless they are.

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  3. Timing our cycles to match our life can be so difficult! I wouldn't want to do retrieval on Christmas day either!My insurance doesn't cover any aspect of IVF what-so-ever so if you find a discount pharmacy I would love to know about it! However, I DO know that you can get a coupon for follistim if you are using that in your protocol. There are also coupons for Crinone. Ask your RE or nurse about it. I got the coupons from my nurse at the clinic.Good luck!

  4. புத்தம் புதிய தமிà®´் திரட்டி – பகலவன் திரட்டி உங்கள் வலைப்பூவை இதிலுà®®் இணைத்து கொள்ளுà®™்கள்.ஓட்டுபட்டை வசதியுà®®் உள்ளது.தமிà®´் சமூகத்திà®±்கு தேவையான பயனுள்ள தகவல்களையுà®®், செய்திகளையுà®®் திரட்டி அவற்à®±ை தமிà®´் சமூகத்திà®±்கு சென்றடைய எங்களின் à®®ுயற்ச்சிக்கு உங்கள் ஆதரவை தருà®®ாà®±ு வேண்டுகிà®±ோà®®்….

  5. I saw HB speak last week and he showed the last image and told how it came about. As the crew was unpacking in the beach parking lot early in the morning there was a man changing from a suit to a s=wet suit, and he was in mid change, wearing what you see on the model. HB had an aha! moment and the rest is Vogue history. It takes a unique eye to recognize the design moment that presented itself in the course of real life, and he has it.

  6. I am a red-head with totally blond brows and I have considered doing the tattoo thing too but I've been hesitant to do that since I am so fair, but now I'm thinking….fyi, I don't know if you do this or not, but I'd swab them daily with a cotton swab coated with sunscreen. They won't fade as fast. I have two tatts, only one of which ever sees the sun and I try to protect it that way.

  7. Musów czekoladowych próbowałam już wiele, ale żaden nie był ideałem (chyba nawet wiem, dlaczego, bo jak się niebezpiecznie zbliżał, to zwykle jadłam za dużo, a to nie jest deser, z którym warto przesadzać). Czekolada i oliwa to niespotykany pomysł, a takie zawsze warto wypróbować, chociaż może najpierw, z lenistwa, zacznę od tosta.

  8. You know, now that you mention it, I don’t really update my basics. I have camis and tanks from AGES ago that I never wear. But, since they’re basics, I never throw them out either. …I’m thinking I should clean my closet out. Thanks for the reminder!

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  11. I can’t tell you how many times over the last week I’ve heard a bitter Republican say they’re going to get off social media and “focus on their family and community”. That’s code for I’m pissed that people rejected our “rape babies are a gift from God” agenda. Good riddance, Kristin. I hope you mean it.

  12. Hi, I ran across this post on CoolSculpting and was interested to know what price points you quoted for the survey. I can’t seem to find the e-newsletter that mentions that. Is there a way that I can subscribe to be notified by email when you have new blog entries?Also, we are helping several CoolSculpting providers in the Western U.S. do their marketing. I wonder if you have done any Google AdWords or Bing Ads and if so how that worked for you.I really like your Website and blog. Nicely done!Best regards,Delena Roth, MBACEO, Peppertown Marketing LLC(908) 665-6400

  13. I use G diapers on Evan(17mo) and am now using them with Cali(1 mo) and I love them! I use some handmade inserts from etsy, but recently(because I saw them here) bought the ones from cottonwood. I haven’t used them yet, just washing em up first?! Thanks for this, very helpful!!.-= Lori´s last blog .. =-.

  14. Cuando esta mañana alguien me dijo que estaba loca de contenta por encontrar un trabajo a la mitad de lo que está estipulada la hora y sin asegurar, pensé lo que tú insinúas al final: somos mano de obra barata como en los países subdesarrollados. Y no se dan cuenta de lo explotados que están…con todo lo que se ha luchado por los derechos del trabajador…¡qué pena!Besos

  15. Las huelgas generales no sirven para nada.¿Que ha pasado en Grecia? ¿Que han conseguido? Y esas fueron huelgas salvajes.¿Les vamos a pedir a los trabajadores precarios que se jueguen su puesto de trabajo?Les importan un pimiento las huelgas generales. Es mas se ahorran dinero

  16. Anonymous March 16, 2012 10:40:00 PM EDT writes:To the PCP CEO, I am not aware of any material improvements in EHRs and CPOE in the past five years. The devices remain as user unfriendly as ever. The fact remains that these devices have not been subjected to safety and efficacy evaluationsThe PCP CEO has had adequate time to respond to my questions.No reply has been received to date.– SS

  17. What a poignant story and a personal triumph to write about it. Losing a parent is one of the hardest things to experience and the fact that he was such a strong role model for you and your siblings creates memories that will be etched and reciprocated for so many years to come. I am sorry for such a huge loss, and see your accomplishment for writing about it. I know how hard that must have been.

  18. OK, so they altered the text, what can you do about it? That’s the sad part, even if you have irrefutable proof nothing will happen, it’s the most corrupt regime in American history.. I hate to sound so negative but I am seriously bummed out and see NO light at the end of the tunnel…

  19. Exciting. And I do have questions. The one on my mind at the moment is: given that there are already lots of churches in Leland, some even the same model as PC3, why add yet another? Besides, anyone in Leland (or anywhere else in the world) can already download the music and message from the website. So I think what has to be answered is what will be provided by this plant that is not already provided online or by existing Leland churches. Not that an adequate answer to this can’t be given; I just don’t know what it is.

  20. Il faut dire aussi que la comparaison est troublante entre la bulle spéculative de Dubaï et l’économie israélienne, bien réelle et créatrice de vraies richesses. D’ailleurs, Israël est un des pays qui souffrent le moins de la crise actuelle. Petit rappel ; 3,7% du PNB investi en R&D (record mondial), 65% des exportations réalisées avec des produits High tech (autre record mondial), plus forte proportion d’ingénieurs, scientifiques et techniciens au monde, position de leadership mondiale dans la pharmacie générique, la sécurité informatique et l’imagerie médicale.

  21. hey amanda how are you today just to say again happy new year again i good to talk to you i hope you did not mind me speaking to jemma into 2010 i was going to call you but you were not on screen near midnight so i called jemma instead take care my special scottish lady 1 trillion trillion trillion kissesxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

  22. My wish list:M – Magic Bites by Ilona AndrewsY – You Don't Have to Say You Love Me by Sarra ManningT – The Darkest Night by Gena ShowalterH – Angels' Blood by Nalini SinghWhat a fun, novel idea for a giveaway! Thanks for the chance! :)chibipooh(at)gmail(dot)com

  23. Ashley, I tend to agree that Bill may be the goner. That would keep the famous ‘soul mate” comment as an accurate pronouncement (soul mates don’t have to have an HEA, or even live) and still keep Sook and Eric apart. I’m relieved AB has never used the HEA term, since he really doesn’t believe in them. Bill is AB’s alter ego, and as such he’s gotten all the benefits accruing from that role. He will eventually experience the big downside that is part and parcel of being AB’s lead guy.   0 likes

  24. Lots to think about! Growing up, we were always allowed sips of our parents’ wine, and by the time we were teenagers, we had our own small glasses, especially on special occasions. I think my parents’ strategy was pretty successful – getting drunk was not a big/important part of college for us, and today we both view alcohol as something to enjoy and savor, not as a means to an end.

  25. Wishing you all the happiness possible! I know it's tough to always embrace happiness but also remember that no one can be happy ALL the time and we're all entitled to feel a little crappy. Don't let those feelings get to you and let them out when they creep up or they may take over the happiness!

  26. It’s up to the parents. If parents instill in children the right priorities, a teacher can’t help but be successful. It’s sort of like a multiplication table. teacher effort X parent effort = success. If parent effort is at 0, no matter how hard teachers work, the kids will become 0s.

  27. What sucks is that your family tamed the land, built new cities, and paid taxes for generations to create wealth and job opportunities, and then illegal aliens sneak across the border and demand a right to those jobs without paying a dime in back taxes. Competition is fine but there has to be some kind of entrance fee.

  28. I have PDD-NOSS, another kind of autism.. My goal now is to become? an Architect.. I have no diplomas from high school, because they were not offering it as a special educational school (for bad learners and autistic kids), so now i need to try to get into college without one and it happened a year ago, but this wasn’t the right job (cook).

  29. Hi Tommy,I think the problem here is that your script as is will call node and your script separately. Instead, what you want to do is start node, and pass it the script to run all in one command. Something more like: “C:\\…node.exe C:\\…chat_bot.js”. That’s all you really need. You’re telling the script to start node as a server, and host your script, all in one command.-AR

  30. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d most certainly donate to this fantastic blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to new updates and will talk about this site with my Facebook group. Chat soon!

  31. Hei, Petunia 🙂 Nydelig vinterbilde av Bergen ! Her er det full fres med det nye familiemedlemmet. Han er berre sÃ¥ skjønn og flink. Det er litt travelt, men fryktelig kjekt !Stor klem frÃ¥ meg. Og du kjem deg heilt sikkert i mÃ¥l til Jul du ogsÃ¥!

  32. Hi Bethany, I love the website! I wanted to know if I could link your website to mine as an ad? I’m getting my site up and running, building my own pages and database and wanted to start putting up ads of fellow loom-knitters’ websites. Please let me know. Thanks!

  33. I think you mean “career” not carrier. and so what if she is young. even at her age now she could not win.. think about it if she was THAT good why didn’t people vote for her? because she is too inlove with herself. and not likeable. and her fans are nasty when you don’t like her.

  34. Kevin – I have been looking for a SEO consultant for months and still no help.I would love to have less stress and more time – but it seems people just want my money but are very vague when telling me what that money would buy.To be fair… an SEO would be doing his/her job if visits/conversions increased in a way that outperforms the money spent in SEO. 500$/month, that’s 50,000 extra visitors for me.

  35. feyzullah topbaşı diyor ki:02.02.1967 DoÄŸumluyum. 01.12.1989 tarihinde sigortam baÅŸladı. Åžuanda 2050 gün primim var, 11.10.2006- 11.10.2009 yılları arasında 4 yıl Tarım BaÄŸkuru ödedim. Halen sigortalı çalışmaktayım. AskerliÄŸimi sigorta baÅŸlangıcından önce 18 ay olarak yaptım. askerlik borçlanmasını yatırırsam ne zaman emekli olurum ? Cevabınız için ÅŸimdiden teÅŸekkürler. Ä°yi Günler Dilerim…

  36. Pójdzie spokojnie. Wybierz tylko instalator tekstowy, jeśli nie chcesz żeby mulił. No i zainstaluj jakieś lżejsze środowisko (XFCE, Ic1ff8eWM, czy podobne). KDE też będzie działać, ale może mieć małe lagi, więc to już jak wolisz.

  37. FabMax,Watch "Pirates of Silicon Valley" which suggested Bill Gates stripped the entire operating system off the chips inside the Apple Macintosh PCs that Steve Jobs trusted him with to develop Multiplan. That's right, the first graphical user interface spreadsheet app by Microsoft was not on Windows! It wouldn't surprise me if Steve Jobs is posthumously credited with inventing Microsoft Windows. Apple is the Cadillac of personal computers.

  38. dit :« Chez nous, on en profite pour prendre des vacances et se pousser. »Mwahahaha, j’adore. Chez nous aussi, on en profite pour faire sensiblement la même chose. Bah, presque. Le 24 et le 25, c’est apparemment non-négociable mais je me dis qu’au moins, le plus loin que je vais aller, c’est de l’autre côté du pont Mercier…On se divertira mutuellement alors []

  39. October 25, 2012  1:01 pm by I absolutely love your blog and find a lot of your post’s to be precisely what I’m looking for. Would you offer guest writers to write content for you personally? I wouldn’t mind producing a post or elaborating on a number of the subjects you write regarding here. Again, awesome weblog!

  40. Every product is assigned a BV(Business Volume) amount. If someone in your network sells the product everyone receives the same BV amount of the product. There are no cut offs or percentages taken out. However in the compensation plan there is a cap on your income. You are only allowed to make $4,200 a week per business development center. Once you reach this level you can create another BDC to make more money. This is how they make this 100% payout fair.

  41. Well, that’s the risk of investing! There is only one thing, which makes house flipping different from other investments. Tou need some knowledge about construction as well (or you need to know reliable people, who know something about it). I have seen too many ‘investors’ spending more money for reconstruction than they were able to get from the sale…

  42. Yes, it was. And I’m even current on my dues. My point is this: we simply don’t have the political muscle to go on strike again by ourselves. True, the Directors would give up their first borns before calling a strike, but without the actors going out with us, it’s ridiculous to think a strike would be anything but a disaster for us. Moreover, it’s a very different financial climate than it was 3 years ago. People are hurting and we will be painted as Porsche-driving prima donnas again. What is the upside of being completely unrealistic about how things will play out?

  43. asmilcamisas disse:Valeu pelo apoio Rafinha!A gente se ve pelos estádios!Lembrando que já falamos da camisa e história do São Bento: E também cobrimos um jogo pela Copa Paulista há algum tempinho: Sem contar as matérias sobre o já extinto VOTORATY, da cidade vizinha de vcs, pela Copa do Brasil: , a decisão da Copa Paulista: e a camisa do Votoraty: Abraços

  44. Cony avi! Amb los dies que feia que no passava per aquí i et trobo així d’emprenyat! Clar que no et fa falta rao, eh!Però diguem, tant difícil és això de fer guions per a pelis porno? Jo crec que amb l’experiència que tens, segur que et surten unes pelis més originals que al Rocco Sigfredi!!!

  45. Kudos! I hear your pain about the time it takes to assemble these posts. The last time I hosted the Teaching Carnival I spent most of a weekend pulling it together and I’d been assiduous, in the month leading up to the date, in combing technorati and my other tagging sites, trying to bookmark all the relevant conversations.This is a great job, though, and I’m looking forward to later in the week when I can come back and peruse the full list at my leisure.

  46. Field,Egypt has 1 percent of their population who controls 90% of the wealth. In the US the top 1 percent almost earns more than the rest of the country. If all of these tax cuts for rich folks continues and this high unemployment goes on for a long period, it's just a matter of time before something goes down in the US of A.

  47. Siapa yang harus menggerakkan kaum terpelajar Indonesia yang sekarang sudah mencukupi jumlahnya untuk bergerak menuju ke satu titik, sehingga kelompok ini bisa “melawan” kelompok yang sekarang hanya mementingkan kepentingan kelompok masing-masing?Jumlah penduduk Indonesia (tergantung siapa yang mengatakan) sudah mencapai 260 juta. Sementara itu modala dasar pembangunan yang berupa kekaan alam (terbarukan dan tidak terbarukan) mengikis terus. Siapa yang peduli memperlambat penduduk sehingga kehancuran negara tercinta dapat dihindari?

  48. also I have another friend who seems to have an evil spirit in him… I do not know what to do to help him? I pray for him, and I will continue to pray for him.He speaks full words but they nearly seem intentionally confused, saying things like “God has seven fingers in seven houses of God” and then repeated partially in addition to another sentence about the holy spirit and needing an ice pick to get through to people.he refuses to read the bible because he has the spirit. what can I do?

  49. And to be clear about my relation to Germans, I have very good friends in Germany, in Bayern and Schwaben.Heydrich didn’t do more for us, he just considered Czech as usefull slaves. Nothing more.OK, so tell me “the real true”, so I can enjoy good laugh as well.

  50. high quality, relevant content.the most difficult part…will be learning to write in a manner that will captivate your readers. when it comes to your site, it is not enough to frequently publish fresh content. that content needs to be well written and to target exactly the group…

  51. This is my third comment and I'd like to point out that a lot of people are complaining that the rating stars and the Pause/Play button are too close that when someone tries to pause the video, they accidently clicked the stars. And they rated the video 2 stars by mistake. How retarded is it to put the rating stars and pause/play button so CLOSE! Jerk.

  52. Heisann og velkommen tilbake!Vi var vel mange som ikke synest blogging var det viktigste i de dager….uffa meg for en fæl tragedie!Synest bildene dine er fine…og noen nydelige roser ogsÃ¥!!Bruksanvisninger er sååå kjedelig…men nok ganske nyttig noen ganger :o)Grattis med vel overstÃ¥tt forresten!ha en fin ny uke

  53. You wrote:Build a mosque near Ground Zero, and you prove that the West does not even value the graves of its martyred dead. Set off a bomb in a crowded cafe and snicker as the governments of the dead rush to assure you that they hold no ill will toward the same ideology responsible. Cover your wife from head to toe on pain of death and watch feminist organizations assure the public that it the feminist thing to do. To Muslims, Western civilization has gone from a bogeyman to a pathetic joke.That sir, is pure gold.Thank you.

  54. “…has me positioned with a bearish bias at the the moment”And so are many others (who is playing the odds). I’ve start shorting this market last Thursday and so far getting run over like many others… I thought no way in hell NDX can have straight 8th week up close, but I was wrong… so, yes, bear market can be vicious… IF this is a bear market rally… 🙂